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A. Theodore Schroeder
Origin of the Book of Mormon

(Salt Lake City, S.L.C. Min. Assoc. 1901)
  • title p.   Title Page (1st. ed.)   pg. 01   Introduction
  • pg. 03   Solomon Spalding   pg. 13   Spalding to Rigdon
  • pg. 16   Rigdon's Religious Dishonesty
  • pg. 19   Rigdon's Denial   pg. 21   Rigdon in Pittsburgh
  • pg. 26   P. P. Pratt as middleman
  • pg. 32   Pratt's LDS conversion
  • pg. 36   Rigdon's LDS conversion
  • pg. 38   Plagiarism from Spalding

  • Transcriber's Comments

  • Complimentary edition cover

    1899 letters to D. H. Bays   |   1900 SLMA tract   |   c. 1960 reprint tract
    1906-09 Roberts vs Schroeder articles   |   1917-19 "Authorship of BoM" articles



    »   OF  THE   «


    Re-Examined in its Relation to

    Spaulding's “Manuscript Found.”

    »   «   »   «

    The Deseret Evening News Editorially says this on July 19, 1900:

          "The discovery of the manuscript written by Mr. Spaulding and
    its deposit in the Library at Oberlin College, Ohio   *   *   *   *   *   *  
    has so completely demolished the theory once relied upon by superficial
    minds that the Book of Mormon was concocted from that manuscript,
    that it has been entirely abandoned by all opponents of Mormonism
    except the densely ignorant or the unscrupulously dishonest."

    And this on May 14, 1901:

         "It is only the densely ignorant, the totally depraved, and clergy-
    men of different denominations afflicted with the anti-Mormon rabies
    who still use the Spaulding story to account for the origin of the Book
    of Mormon."

    »   «   »   «

    PRICE  10  CENTS.




    Every complete, critical discussion of the divine origin of the Book of Mormon naturally divides itself into three parts.  First, an examination as to the sufficiency of the evidence adduced in support of its miraculous and divine origin. Second, an examination of the internal evidences of its origin, such as its verbiage, (0a) its alleged history, chronology, archeology, etc. Third, an accounting for its existence by purely human agency and upon a rational basis, remembering that Joseph Smith, the nominal founder and first Prophet of Mormonism, was probably too ignorant to have produced the volume unaided. Under the last head, two theories have been advocated by non-Mormons. By one of these, conscious fraud has been imputed to Smith, and by the other, psychic mysteries have been explored (0b) in an effort to supplant the conscious fraud by an unconscious self-deception.
    In 1834, four years after its first appearance, an effort was made to show that the Book of Mormon was a plagiarism from an unpublished novel of Solomon Spaulding.  For a long time this seemed the accepted theory of all non-Mormons. In the past fifteen years, apparently following in the lead of President Fairchild of Oberlin College, (1) all but two of the numerous writers upon the subject have asserted that the theory of the Spaulding Manuscript origin of the Book of Mormon must be abandoned, and Mormons assert that only fools and knaves still profess belief in it. (2) (2b) With these last conclusions I am compelled to disagree. In setting forth my convictions and the reasons for them, I have undertaken nothing entirely new, but have only assigned myself the task of establishing as an historical fact what

    (1)  President Fairchild, in the New York Observer for February 5, 1885, that being immediately after his discovery of the Oberlin Manuscript, says: "The theory of the origin of the Book of Mormon in the traditional manuscript of Solomon Spaulding will probably have to be relinquished.  * * * * *  Mr. Rice, myself, and others compared it with the Book of Mormon, and could detect no resemblance between the two in general or detail.  * * * * *  Some other explanation of the origin of the Book of Mormon must be found, if an explanation is required."  (Reproduced in Whitney's History of Utah, 56. Talmage's Articles of Faith, 278.)

    Ten years later Mr. Fairchild is not so brash in assuming the Oberlin Manuscript to be the only Spaulding Manuscript, and he certifies only that the Oberlin Manuscript "is not the original of the Book of Mormon" (Letter dated Oct. 17, 1895, published in vol. 60, Millennial Star, p. 697. Nov. 3rd, 1898. Talmage's Articles of Faith, 279.)


    Since this essay was placed in the printer's hands, I am through the kindness of the Rev. J. D. Nutting enabled to add the following recent [1900] statement from Ex-president Fairchild:
        "With regard to the manuscript of Mr. Spaulding now in the Library of Oberlin College, I have never stated, and know of no one who can state, that it is the only manuscript which Spaulding wrote, or that it is certainly the one which has been supposed to be the original of the Book of Mormon. The discovery of this Ms. does not prove that there may not have been another, which became the basis of the Book of Mormon. The use which has been made of statements emanating from me as implying the contrary of the above is entirely unwarranted.


    (2)   Deseret News, July 19, 1900, and May 14, 1901.



    is now an abandoned and almost forgotten theory. This will be done by marshaling in its support a more complete array of the old evidences than has been heretofore made and the addition of new circumstantial evidence not heretofore used in this connection.

    It will be shown that Solomon Spaulding was much interested in American antiquities; that he wrote a novel entitled the "Manuscript Found" in which he attempted to account for the existence of the American Indian by giving him an Israelitish origin; that the first incomplete outline of this story, with many features peculiar to itself and the Book of Mormon, is now in the library of Oberlin College, and that while the story as rewritten was in the hands of a prospective publisher, it was stolen from the office under circumstances which caused Sidney Rigdon of early Mormon fame, to be suspected as the thief; that later Rigdon, on two occasions, exhibited a similar manuscript which in one instance he declared had been written by Spaulding and left with a printer for publication.   It will be shown further that Rigdon had opportunity to steal the manuscript and that he foreknew the forthcoming and the contents of the Book of Mormon; that through Parley P. Pratt, later one of the first Mormon Apostles, a plain and certain connection is traced between Sidney Rigdon and Joseph Smith, and that they were friends between 1827 and 1830. To all this will be added very conclusive evidence of the identity of the distinguishing features of Spaulding's "Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon. These facts, coupled with Smith's admitted intellectual incapacity for producing the book unaided, will close the argument upon this branch of the question, and it is hoped will convince all not in the meshes of Mormonism that the Book of Mormon is a plagiarism. To those Mormons whose minds are untainted by mysticism, who have the intelligence to weigh evidence and the courage to proclaim convictions opposed to accepted church theories -- to such Mormons, though not convinced that the evidence here reviewed amounts to a demonstration, it must be that this essay will yet furnish even to them a more believable and more probable theory of the origin of the Book of Mormon than the one which involves a belief in undemonstrable miracles as well as matters entirely outside of all other experience of sane humans. Certainly the theory here advanced requires for its belief the acceptance of less of improbable assumption than does any other explanation offered. With this statement of what



    it is expected to accomplish we may proceed to review the evidence in detail.


    Solomon Spaulding was born in 1761 at Ashford, Connecticut, graduated from Dartmouth in 1785, graduated in theology in 1787, and became an obscure preacher. The fact that Spaulding had become an infidel, (3) that in rewriting the first outline of his story he adopted, as he said, "the old Scripture style" to make it seem more ancient,(4) and the further fact that he told at least four persons at different times that his story would some day be accepted as veritable history -- (5) all of these, combined with the peculiar product tend to show that one motive for the writing of this supposed novel may have been the author's desire to burlesque the Bible and furnish a practical demonstration of the gullibility of the masses.

    While at Dartmouth College, Spaulding had as a classmate the subsequently famous impostor and criminal, Stephen Burroughs, (6) which fact furnishes interesting material for reflection as to how far the subsequent ill fame of Burroughs, coupled with personal acquaintance, may have operated in Spaulding as a fruitful suggestion inducing this labor as a means of securing fortune through fraud.
    If Spaulding did not see the possibility of a new and profitable religion in his "Manuscript Found," then he was more short-sighted than was a nephew of his named King. This nephew told one Hale, a school-teacher, of his belief that he could start a new religion out of this novel and make money thereby, at the same time briefly outlining a plan very similar to the one long afterward adopted by Smith, Rigdon & Co. (7) If we can place any confidence in the report of an interview between a Mormon "elder" and a nephew of Solomon Spaulding, then it would appear that in the opinion of the latter's brother Solomon Spaulding was not a man who would be, by conscientious scruples, deterred from practicing such a fraud, if believed profitable. (8) Be that as it may, Spaulding did hope by the sale of his literary

    (3) See Addendum to Spaulding Manuscript at Oberlin College and Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 288.
    (4) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 288.
    (5) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 283, 4, 6, 7.
    (6) Memoirs of Stephen Burroughs, p. 26, ed. of 1811, shows Burroughs to have entered Dartmouth in 1781, which must have been Spaulding's date of entry, he having graduated in 1785.
    (7) New Light on Mormonism, 261.
    (8) 35 Saints' Herald, 820.



    production to make sufficient money to enable him to pay his debts.(9)

    In 1809 Solomon Spaulding and Henry Lake built and conducted a forge at Salem (now Conneaut), Ohio, where, in 1812, the former made his second business failure. (10)

    Spaulding, being an invalid, possessed of a good education and habits of study, naturally took to literary work, which he probably commenced soon after 1809, (11) and continued until his death in October, 1816.  During this seven years he seems to have written several other manuscripts(12) besides the two with which we are directly concerned.

    Necessarily Spaulding's surroundings gave some direction to the course of his literary efforts. Environed as he was in a country where once dwelt the mound-builders, and having himself caused one of the mounds to be opened, with the resulting discovery of bones and relics of a supposedly prehistoric civilization,(13) like thousands before him, he was led to speculate upon the character of that civilization and the origin of those ancient peoples. Josiah Priest, in his "Wonders of Nature and Providence," (1824) quotes over forty authors, half of whom are Americans, and all of whom, prior to 1824, advocated an Israelitish origin of the American Indian. Some of these dated as far back as Clavigaro, a Catholic priest in the seventeenth century. 

    In Spaulding's first writing of his manuscript story, he pretended to find a roll of parchment in a stone box within a cave. In the Latin language, this contained an account of a party of Roman sea voyagers, who, in the time of Constantine, were, by storms, drifted ashore on the American continent. One of their number left this record of their travels, of Indian wars and customs, which record Spaulding pretends to have found and to translate. (14) How that resembles a synopsis of the Book of Mormon!

    In 1834, when E. D. Howe had in preparation his book, "Mormonism Unveiled," wherein the Spaulding story was first exploited, this first manuscript was given by Spaulding's family to D. P. Hurlburt, the agent of Howe. The Spaulding family, without having made any examination whatever of the papers delivered

    (9) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 285.
    (10) Prophet of Palmyra, 443; Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 279 and 282; New Light on Mormonism, 13.
    (11) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled,
    279; New Light on Mormonism, 13-14.
    (12) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 284; New Light on Mormonism, 20.
    (13) New Light on Mormonism, 14.
    (14) The Manuscript Found. for Howe's synopsis see Mormonism Unveiled, 288. Whitney's History of Utah, 49-51.



    to Hurlburt, seem always to have believed, (15) though without any evidence, that he received and sold to the Mormons the rewritten story entitled "Manuscript Found, "which will be more fully discussed hereafter.  From Howe this first manuscript story went into the possession of one L. L. Rice, who bought out Howe's business, and later, with other effects of Rice's, it was shipped to Honolulu, and there, in 1884, accidentally discovered by President James H. Fairchild of Oberlin College. (16) This manuscript is now in the Oberlin library, and has been published by two of the Mormon sects as being a refutation of the Spaulding origin of the Book of Mormon. It can be such refutation only to those who mistake it for another story. Howe, in 1834, published a fair synopsis of the manuscript now at Oberlin (19) and submitted the original to the witnesses who testified to the many points of identity between Spaulding's "Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon. These witnesses then (in 1834) recognized the manuscript, secured by Hurlburt and now at Oberlin, as being one of Spaulding's, but not the one which they asserted was similar to the Book of Mormon. They further said that Spaulding had told them that he had altered his original plan of writing by going farther back with his dates and writing in the old Scripture style, in order that his story might appear more ancient. (18) 

    According to many witnesses, the re-written "Manuscript Found" (like the Book of Mormon) was an attempt at imitating the literary style of the Bible.  So was the manuscript submitted to Patterson, according to his own statement. (19)  No such indications are found in the Oberlin manuscript, which further evidences that it is not the manuscript of which the witnesses testified, and which Patterson says was submitted to him. The Oberlin manuscript also furnishes internal evidences of an improbability that it was ever submitted to a publisher by any man as sane and well educated as was Spaulding. The plot of the story is incomplete, and the manuscript is full of interlineations, alterations, careless or phonetic spelling, and misused capital letters. These are all easily explainable consistently with Spaulding's erudition, if we view the manuscript as a hasty and careless blocking out of his literary work, but it is not in such a condition as would make him willing to submit it to a publisher.

    (15) New Light on Mormonism.
    (16) Publisher's Preface to The Manuscript Found; IV. Deseret News, July 19, 1900; 1. Whitney's History of Utah, p. 49; Talmage's Articles of Faith, 278-9.
    (17) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 288; 1. Whitney's History of Utah, 49.
    (18) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 288.
    (19) The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, by John E. Page, 7; Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 7;  Mormonism Exposed, by Williams.



    If we bear in mind that from the beginning it was asserted that this manuscript now at Oberlin was not the one from which the Book of Mormon was alleged to have been plagiarized, then President Fairchild's conclusion that it disproves such plagiarism of course becomes absurd and only demonstrates his ignorance of the early testimony upon which was asserted the connection of the Book of Mormon and another manuscript. This also disposes of the Mormon argument most frequently urged against the theory here advocated.

    Either through like ignorance of the evidence of 1834 that this was not the manuscript then being testified about, or through a willingness to play upon the ignorance of others, the two leading sects of Mormons have published this first manuscript as a refutation of a theory which no one ever advocated, viz. That the manuscript now at Oberlin was the thing from which Smith et al. plagiarized the Book of Mormon. In my judgement, the publication of this first incomplete manuscript story furnishes additional evidence that the rewritten story did constitute the foundation of the Book of Mormon.   When we remember what was said in 1834 as to the character of changes made in rewriting, and that the rewritten story was revamped by Smith, Rigdon, & Co., we are astonished at the number of similarities retained; as, for instance, the finding of the story in a stone box, its translation into English, the attempt to account for a portion of the population of this continent, the wars of extermination of two factions, the impossible slaughters of primitive warfare, and the physically impossible armies which were gathered together without modern facilities of either transportation or the furnishing of supplies -- the fact that after two rewritings, the second being by new authors, there should remain these very unusual features, makes the discovery and publication of this first manuscript only an additional evidence that the second one did furnish the basis of the Book of Mormon.

    By always remembering these separate manuscripts and their different histories, much seeming conflict of evidence can be explained, mistaken conclusions accounted for, and confusion avoided. The Mormons, in their publication of the first manuscript story, have labelled it "The Manuscript Found," though no such title is discoverable anywhere upon or in the body of the manuscript in the Oberlin library. (20) The evident purpose of this is to further confound that first story with the second or

    (20) 35 Saints' Herald, 130;  Prophet of Palmyra, 459.


    rewritten manuscript which it will be demonstrated really was used in constructing the Book of Mormon, and which manuscript the witnesses to be hereafter introduced described by that title. Having traced to its final resting-place at Oberlin College the first manuscript story, which had no direct connection with the Book of Mormon and never was claimed to have such, let us now, if we can, trace into the Book of Mormon Spaulding's rewritten story, entitled "The Manuscript Found."


    Spaulding commenced his writing about 1809, changing his plans while still at Conneaut, that is, prior to 1812, (21) at which later date the rewritten story of "The Manuscript Found" was still incomplete. (22) In 1812 Spaulding borrowed some money with which to go to Pittsburg, hoping there to get his novel published and thus make it possible for him to pay his debts.(23) In Pittsburg Spaulding submitted his manuscript to one Robert Patterson, then engaged in the publishing business. (24)  The exact date is not known, but it is probable almost to certainty that Spaulding would do this immediately upon his arrival in Pittsburg in 1812, since that was one of his definite purposes in going there. Spaulding's widow is reported as saying: "At length the manuscript was returned to the author, and soon after we removed to Amity, Washington county, Pa." (25)   The return of the manuscript before 1814, the date of the removal to Amity, is made additionally certain by the testimony of Redick McKee (26) and Joseph Miller. (27)  This additional evidence, especially that of the latter, make[s] it plain that Spaulding had his rewritten manuscript at Amity, thus demonstrating its return to Spaulding before the latter's removal from Pittsburg. The evidences of identity between the manuscript testified about as being at Amity, and Spaulding's rewritten story, leave no doubt.  The review of this evidence of identity will be postponed until we come to review the other evidences of identity between "The Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon.

    It is said that Patterson returned the manuscript to Spaulding with the advice to "polish it up, finish it, and you will make

    (21) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 288.
    (22) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 283.
    (23) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 282-3.
    (24) New Light on Mormonism, 16-17; History of the Mormons, 43; Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 7.
    (25) Gleanings by the Way, 252;  Mormon's Own Book, 29; Prophet of Palmyra, 419;  History of the Mormons, 43.
    (26) Washington (Pa.) Reporter of April 21, 1869;  Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 6.
    (27) Gregg's Prophet of Palmyra, 441-2.


    money out of it."(28) On behalf of Patterson it has been said that he directed its return unless the author would furnish ample security to guarantee the expense of publishing, which we can readily believe to have been impossible to the impecunious Spaulding.(29)

    After residing in Pittsburg two years, (30) the Spauldings moved to Amity in Washington County. Pa., where Solomon Spaulding and his returned "Manuscript Found" again became the center of attraction among the commonplace neighborhood listeners, who did their loafing about the Spaulding tavern. (31) Here the story was polished and finished, (32) and from Amity Spaulding again journeyed to Pittsburg, in the hope in the second attempt of securing the publication of his story, "The Manuscript Found."(33) Spaulding's widow and daughter assert that at one time Patterson advised Spaulding "to make out a title-page and preface." (34) That remark would seem most likely to have been made after the finishing of the story, and I therefore feel justified in believing it to have been made after the second submission of the manuscript. Mrs. Spaulding-Davidson says this request was never complied with, but for reasons which are unknown to her. In the light of evidence to be hereafter reviewed, we are justified in an inference that one of the causes was a theft of the manuscript from the publisher's office, followed, perhaps, within a few weeks or months, by the death of Spaulding, which occurred in October, 1816. 


    It has been a theory among some that Joseph Smith himself secured the Spaulding manuscript from the house of William H. Sabine of Onondago Valley, N. Y., for whom Smith worked as a teamster in 1823. (35) According to another theory, Sidney Rigdon, while the "Manuscript Found" was at the printing office, copied it, the original being returned to Spaulding. A third theory supposes Smith to have copied it while working for Sabine about 1823, leaving the original there. A fourth theory makes

    (28) New Light on Mormonism, 239;  Magazine of American History, June, 1882; Scribner's Monthly, August, 1880;  Prophet of Palmyra, 426 [sic - 423].
    (29) Mormonism Exposed, by Williams, 16;  Prophet of Palmyra, 455;  The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, 7, by John E. Page.
    (30) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 287;  Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 7.
    (31) Prophet of Palmyra, 441, 442.
    (32) Reddick McKee in Washington (Pa.) Reporter, April 12, 1869;  Who Wrote the Book of Mormon, 6.
    (33) Prophet of Palmyra, 442.
    (34) Prophet of Palmyra, 419-42;  3 Millennial Harbinger, about May, 1839;  Boston Recorder during May, 1839;  Mormon's Own Book, 29.
    (35) Hand Book on Mormonism, 3;  Braden-Kelly Debate, 47 and 118.



    Spaulding copy his story for the publisher while keeping the duplicate at home to be afterward cared for by the family. Under all of these theories, the original of Spaulding's rewritten story was delivered in 1833 to D. P. Hurlburt to be used by E. D. Howe in his then forthcoming book, "Mormonism Unveiled," but, according to the Spaulding family, was by Hurlburt sold to the Mormons, and according to the Mormons, destroyed by Hurlburt because wholly unlike the Book of Mormon. These theories can claim for themselves no greater weight than that, in the opinion of their several non-Mormon advocates, they furnish a possible explanation as to the connecting link between Spaulding and Smith, but upon all essentials, except one, are without any evidence which involves the conclusion deduced from it, and not one of these theories is necessary as an explanation for the established facts. The one element which has direct evidence in its support is the allegation that Spaulding's rewritten story of the "Manuscript Found" was, after Spaulding's death, in the possession of his widow. That allegation rests upon the following statement of Spaulding's daughter, Mrs. McKinstry, and the family belief in it without any additional evidence upon which to base that belief.  

    She says: "In 1816 my father died at Amity. Pa., and directly after his death my mother and myself went to visit my mother's brother, William H. Sabine, at Onondago Valley, Onondago county, N. Y.  * * * *  We carried our personal effects with us, and one of these was an old trunk in which my mother had placed my father's writings, which had been preserved. I perfectly remember the appearance of this trunk, and of looking at its contents. There were sermons and other papers, and I saw a manuscript about an inch thick, closely written, tied with some of the stories my father had written for me, one of which he called the 'Frogs of Wyndham.' On the outside of this manuscript were written the words, 'Manuscript Found.' I did not read it, but looked through it and had it in my hands many times and saw the names I had heard at Conneaut when my father read it to his friends. I was about eleven years old at this time." (36)

    The trunk remained at Sabine's until some time soon after 1820,(37) while in 1823 Smith is said to have worked for Sabine as a teamster, and almost certainly heard Spaulding's stories discussed as a matter of family history. If the rewritten story of

    (36) New Light on Mormonism, 238;  Magazine of American History, June, 1882;  Scribner's Monthly, August, 1880.
    (37) New Light on Mormonism, 238;  Braden-Kelly Debate, 118.



    Spaulding's "Manuscript Found" had been in the trunk at Sabine's while Smith worked there, which is doubtful, he might have stolen it or copied it, though the latter is made almost impossible by Smith's inability to write, (37b) and by his youth.

    Assuming, for the sake of argument, that it has been established that the Book of Mormon is a plagiarism from Spaulding's rewritten story, then we may still doubt that any of the above theories have sufficient evidence to warrant their acceptance as established facts. These various theories were all invented because of a supposed necessity of accounting for the alleged presence of the rewritten "Manuscript Found" in the trunk at Sabine's house after 1816, the date of Spaulding's death. If the "Manuscript Found" was never there, the theories constructed to explain that fact must fall.

    That the first outline of the story which is now at Oberlin was then in the trunk is certain, because Hurlburt, in 1834, found it there. It is even possible that this first manuscript may at some time have been labeled "Manuscript Found." But was the rewritten story ever in the trunk at Sabine's? If not, Smith could neither have stolen it nor copied it, and if never there, or if stolen by Smith, Hurlburt could not have secured that rewritten manuscript and sold it to the Mormons, as it has been charged he did do, while he gave only the first manuscript to Howe, by whom he was employed to secure another. It may not be amiss to here state that Howe never doubted Hurlburt's fidelity in the matter. (38) 

    The great preponderance of the evidence is against the allegation that the second manuscript was ever in the trunk at Sabine's. Mrs. McKinstry's evidence does not establish the identity of Spaulding's rewritten "Manuscript Found" and the trunk manuscript. Such assertion of identity is contradicted by that more satisfactory evidence to be hereafter reviewed, and which shows that the rewritten manuscript was stolen from the printing office before Spaulding's death; that the latter suspected Rigdon of being the thief; that possession of Rigdon of some such manuscript, and which, on one occasion, he said had been written by Spaulding; Rigdon's advance knowledge of the forthcoming Book of Mormon and his sudden conversion after its appearance, and coupled with a very plain connection between Rigdon and Smith through Parley P. Pratt as intermediary. These conclusions and

    (38) Under date of September 12, 1879, E. D. Howe wrote to R. Patterson saying, "I am very certain he (Hurlburt) never had any Manuscript Found to sell to anybody." "Whatever Mormons may say, I think Hurlburt was perfectly honest in all his transactions here."



    much of the evidence upon which they are based will contradict Mrs. McKinstry's statement, if she meant by it to assert that the Sabine trunk manuscript contained the names "Mormon," "Moroni," "Lamanite," and "Nephi," which names, it will be shown, occur in and only in the rewritten manuscript and the Book of Mormon.

    In determining what weight to give to Mrs. McKinstry's statement as to the contents of the trunk manuscript, several important facts must be kept in mind. Mrs. McKinstry made this statement in 1880, when she was seventy-four years of age. Her father died in October, 1816, very soon after she and the trunk went to Sabine's at Hartwick, Onondaga County, N. Y., and there she "many times" had it in her hand. At the earliest date this must have been in the fore part of 1817, and she tells us that she was about eleven years old at this time. If, in 1817, she was eleven years old, then, in 1812, when she, with her parents, left Conneaut for Pittsburg, she could not have exceeded six years of age. At the age of seventy-four Mrs. McKinstry testified that when she was eleven years old she looked through, but did not read, a manuscript, yet saw the names she heard her father read at Conneaut, between 1810 and 1812, when she was from four to six years old. That this woman, at seventy-four, should remember strange names, casually repeated in her presence, before her sixth year, and those names wholly unrelated to anything of direct consequence to her child life, is a feat of memory too extraordinary to give her uncorroborated statement any weight, as against valid contradictory conclusions drawn from established facts. 

    From 1834, when this alleged plagiarism was first publicly charged, until the giving of Mrs. McKinstry's evidence in 1880, it had necessarily been a matter of frequent discussion in the family circle that the Book of Mormon was a plagiarism from her father's "Manuscript Found," and always the identity of names must have been spoken of as the connecting link in the chain of evidence proving the plagiarism, since that identity of names was the principal item of evidence as it was first argued and published in 1834. With like uniformity, it was firmly believed (but as a mere matter of inference, be it remembered) that Hurlburt secured from the trunk that second manuscript, which contained these names. Hence it would be inferred by the Spaulding family that the trunk must have contained the names in question. This association of ideas through an almost infinite



    number of recurrences in mind became firmly impressed as a fixed fact during this forty-six years of frequent repetition. It is not strange, therefore, if, after these forty-six years, and with the failing memory of the age of seventy-four, Mrs. McKinstry should have forgotten the real origin of this association of ideas, and relate it back to the supposed inspection of the trunk manuscript and the Conneaut readings, honestly believing in her accuracy.  In this conclusion Mormon authorities concur. (39)

    The only other statement which has ever been claimed as evidence showing Spaulding's rewritten manuscript to have been in the Sabine trunk is one by his widow, Matilda Spaulding-Davidson. She says that before leaving Pittsburg for Amity, her husband's manuscript was returned by the publishers.  She seemingly remembers nothing of its second submission while her husband resided at Amity, or else those who wrote and signed her statement didn't see fit to mention it. "The Manuscript then (after Mr. Spaulding's death in 1816) fell into my hands, and was preserved carefully. It has frequently been EXAMINED BY MY DAUGHTER, Mrs. McKinstry of Monson, Mass., with whom I now reside, and by other friends." (40) 

    By what follows, she makes it plain that the "other friends" referred to are the Conneaut neighbors, who's examination was made prior to 1812, and not at Sabine's. That she herself never examined the Sabine trunk manuscript so as to speak upon the matter of identity of manuscripts from personal knowledge, is apparent from several facts. First, although writing an argumentative article, the strongest part of which would have been her personal testimony as to some point of identity between the trunk manuscript and the Book of Mormon, she mentioned none such as being within her own knowledge. In the absence of personal knowledge, she repeats as a justification of her belief the evidence of Conneaut witnesses as to the identity of her husband's "Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon. Even upon the question of the existence of any manuscript in the Sabine trunk, she seem[s] not to rely upon any personal inspection of the trunk manuscript, but with an apparent intention of putting the responsibility for her statement upon the inspection of her daughter, Mrs. McKinstry, speaks of the latter's inspection, while remaining silent as to whether or not she made any inspection of her own.

    The argumentative style and the failure to distinguish between

    (39) Myth of the Manuscript Found, 29.
    (40) Boston Daily Advertiser, copied in 3 Millennial Harbinger, May, [sic - June] 1839;  Mormon's Own Book, 28; Boston Recorder, May, 1839;  Prophet of Palmyra, 417.



    personal knowledge and argumentative inferences is all readily understood when the history of this statement is made known. It seems that two preachers, named D. R. Austin and John Storrs, are responsible for this letter. Mrs. Davidson never wrote it, but afterwards stated that "in the main" it was true. (41)  Even with her re-affirmance of the story as published, we cannot give it evidentiary weight except in those matters where it is plain from the nature of things that she must have been speaking from personal knowledge.

    Upon the question as to whether or not Spaulding's rewritten manuscript was in the possession of anybody but Rigdon at any time after October, 1816, Mrs. Davidson's statement as published cannot in any sense whatever be considered as evidence. And since Mrs. McKinstry's unsupported evidence, for the reasons already given, must be considered as of such very infinitesimal weight, I conclude that there is no believable evidence upon which to base the conclusion that the "Manuscript Found" was ever returned to Spaulding after its second submission to Patterson, or was ever in the trunk at Sabine's, and therefore, could not have been either copied or stolen by Smith. This also answers one Mormon argument made against Rigdon's theft of the manuscript from the printing office, which argument is always based upon the assumption the original manuscript of the rewritten story was in the Sabine trunk long after the time of the alleged theft by Rigdon. 


    When we digressed from the main lines of our argument, Spaulding's rewritten story had been traced into the hands of Robert Patterson, a Pittsburg publisher, and this prior to Spaulding's death in October, 1816.  If the manuscript was never returned to Spaulding after its second submission to Patterson, then what became of it? John Miller, who knew Spaulding at Amity, bailed him out of jail when confined for debt, made his coffin for him, and helped lay him in his grave, says Spaulding told him "there was a man named Sidney Rigdon about the office (of Patterson), and they thought he had stolen it (the manuscript)." (42)

    (41) Quincy Whig, quoted in The Spaulding story Examined and Exposed, 5, to be read in connection with Gleanings by the Way, 261-7.   On p. 22 of the Myth of the Manuscript Found this interview appears with the statement that the Boston Recorder article was in the main true, carefully omitted. For still more gross dishonesty see "Apostle" (afterward Prophet) John Taylor's lying perversion of this alleged interview as reported in his 'three nights' public discussion,' pp. 45 and 46. The dishonesty of the original publication of this interview is pointed out in Gleanings by the Way, 261-264.

    (42) Gregg's Prophet of Palmyra, 442; date, January 20, 1882.



    The Rev. Cephus Dodd, a Presbyterian minister of Amity, Pa., as well as a practicing physician, attended Spaulding at his last sickness. As early as 1832, when Mormonism was first attracting general public attention, and two years prior to the publication of Howe's book, in which Spaulding's story was first ventilated, this Mr. Dodd took Mr. George M. French of Amity to Spaulding's grave, and there expressed a positive belief that Sidney Rigdon was the agent who had transformed Spaulding's manuscript into the Book of Mormon. The date is fixed by Mr. French through its proximity to his removal to Amity; hence the date given is probably correct. (43)  

    The conclusion thus expressed by Mr. Dodd in advance of all public discussion or evidence is important, because of what is necessarily implied in it. First, it involved a comparison between Spaulding's literary production and the Book of Mormon, with a discovered similarity inducing conviction that the latter was a plagiarism from the former. This comparison pre-supposes a knowledge of the contents of Spaulding's rewritten manuscript. The second and most important deduction is to be made from the assertion that Sidney Rigdon was the connecting link in the plagiarism. Such a conclusion must have had a foundation in Mr. Dodd's mind, and could have arisen only if he was possessed of personal knowledge of what he considered reliable information creating a conviction in his mind of the probability of Sidney Rigdon's connection with the matter. This conclusion, if not made on independent evidence, in all human probability had no less significant foundation than a confidence in the accuracy of Spaulding's expressed suspicion to the effect that Rigdon had stolen the manuscript from the printing office. Thus accounted for, Dr. Dodd's statement has less force than if presumed to have been made on independent evidence, yet it confirms Joseph Miller's statement that Spaulding suspected Rigdon, and that suspicion must be accounted for by those who deny Rigdon's presence in Pittsburg prior to 1821.


    Was Spaulding's expressed suspicion that Rigdon had stolen his manuscript from the printing office well founded? We can never know upon what evidence the accusation was made, but we

    (43) History of Washington County, Pa. [containing article] by Patterson. Who wrote the Book of Mormon, p. 10.



    may inquire into the probative force of such new corroborative evidence as has been adduced since Spaulding's death.

    Sidney Rigdon was born February 19, 1793, in Piny Fork of Peter's Creek, Saint Clair Township, Allegheny County, Pa., (44) which place is variously estimated at from six to twelve miles distant from Pittsburg. At least until 1810, that being the date of the death of his father, and his own eighteenth year, Rigdon remained on the farm with his parents. (45)

    According to the Mormon account, Rigdon was licensed as a Baptist preacher fourteen years before becoming a Mormon. (46) This would make the date 1816, the same year in October of which Spaulding died, it being Rigdon's twenty-fourth year, and the same year in which he stole from the publishing office of Patterson the manuscript of Spaulding, if the latter's suspicions shall prove well founded.  A very opportune time, be it observed, for the giving of attention to religious subjects. 

    According to another account, and perhaps the more accurate one, Rigdon joined the Baptist Church May 31, 1817, (47) a Welsh clergyman, Rev. David Phillips, being his pastor.(48) This church was located near where the neighboring hamlet of Library is now situated.  Rigdon "began to talk in public on religion soon after his admission to the church, probably at his own instance, as there is no record of his license." (49)

    The following year (1818) Rigdon left the farm and took up his residence and the study of divinity with the Rev. Andrew Clark at Sharon, Beaver County, Pa., (50) where, in March, 1819, he was licensed as Baptist. (51) I am informed by Sidney Rigdon's son that in 1818 his father made a lengthy visit to Pittsburg. In May, 1819, Rigdon moved to Warren, Trumbull County, Ohio, where, in July, he took up his residence with the Rev. Adamson Bentley, later of "Disciple" fame, (52) and was here ordained a regular Baptist preacher. (53) While thus situated Rigdon met, and on June 12, 1820, married Phoebe Brook, (54) who was a sister to Mrs. Bentley. (55) Rigdon continued his preaching hereabouts, not appearing to have any regular charge until February,

    (44) The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, by John E. Page, 7.  Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 42.  Myth of the Manuscript Found, 24.
    (45) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 42.
    (46) 35 Saints' Herald, 130.
    (47) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 8.  Myth of the Manuscript Found, 24.
    (48) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 42 and 43.
    (49) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 9.
    (50) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 8.
    (51) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 42 and 43.
    (52) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 43.
    (53) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 8.  Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 43.
    (54) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 43.
    (55) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 12.



    1822. In November, 1821, he received a call from the First Baptist Church of Pittsburg, which was accepted, active duties commencing February, 1822, (56) and according to Joseph Smith ended August, 1824, at which time Rigdon was expelled for doctrinal error. (57) Another account fixes the date of his being deposed as October 11, 1823.(58) Thereupon Rigdon, Alexander Campbell, and Walter Scott organized the "Christian church," otherwise known as "Disciples" -- and, with his following, Rigdon secured the courthouse in Pittsburg in which to do his preaching, at the same time working as a journeyman tanner(59) with his brother-in-law, Mr. Brooks. (60) Mr. Lambdin, through whom Rigdon is supposed to have secured access to the Spaulding manuscript, and of whom more shall be written later on, died August 1, 1825, (61) and in 1826 Rigdon returned to Bainbridge, Geauga County, Ohio. (62) Here he soon met Orson Hyde, who became a student of divinity at Mr. Rigdon's, with a view, as Hyde says, of entering the ministry, [though he] never appears to have entered any ministry except the Mormon. In 1829 Hyde became a boarder in Rigdon's family, and in 1830 (63) he was almost miraculously converted to Mormonism, and still later became one of the first "Quorum" of apostles in the Mormon Church. Rigdon died July 14, 1876. (64)


    There are two circumstances of the above narrative which need a little further elucidation, since the impressions which Rigdon made upon his discerning intimates during his earlier life may have some bearing upon the force to be given to the circumstantial evidence concerning his after life.

    As to Rigdon's conversion to the Baptist Church so very soon after the time when Spaulding expressed the suspicion that Rigdon had stolen his manuscript, the Rev. Samuel Williams, in his "Mormonism Exposed," says: "He (Rigdon) professed to experience a change of heart when a young man, and proposed to join the church under the care of Elder David Phillips. But there was so much miracle about his conversion and so much

    (56) The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, 4, by J. E. Page.  Mormonism Exposed, 2, exact date, January 28th, 1822.
    (57) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 43.
    (58) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 8.
    (59) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 44.
    (60) The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, p. 8.
    (61) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 7.  Myth of the Manuscript Found, 26.
    (62) Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 44.  5 Times and Seasons, 418.
    (63) The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, 10.
    (64) Historical Record, 992. Bancroft's History of Utah, 202.



    parade about his profession, that the pious and discerning pastor entertained serious doubts at the time in regard to the genuineness of the work. He was received, however, by the church and baptized by the pastor with some fears and doubts upon his mind. Very soon, Diotrephes-like, he began to put himself forward and seek pre-eminence, and was well-nigh supplanting the tired and faithful minister who had reared and nursed and led the church for a long series of years. So thoroughly convinced was Father Phillips by this time that he was not possessed of the spirit of Christ, notwithstanding his miraculous conversion and flippant speech, that he declared his belief 'that as long as he (Sidney Rigdon) should live, he would be a curse to the church of Christ.'" (65)

    Concerning Rigdon's expulsion or resignation from the Baptist Church, the Mormons declare that it was caused by Rigdon's refusal to either accept or teach the doctrine of infant damnation. Dr. Winter, in the course of historical notice of the First Baptist Church of Pittsburg, says: "When Holland Sumner dealt with Rigdon for his bad teachings, and said to him: 'Brother Rigdon, you never got into a Baptist church without relating your Christian experiences,' Rigdon replied: 'When I joined the church at Peter's Creek I knew I could not be admitted without an experience, so I made up one to suit the purpose; but it was all made up and was of no use, nor true.' This I have just copied from an old memorandum as taken from Sumner himself." (66) 

    The first of these accounts was published in 1842, the last in January, 1875, and Rigdon lived until July 14, 1876. While one H. A. Dunlavy of Lebanon, Ohio, did, in the March number of the same paper, publish an apology for Rigdon by way of answer to the article of Dr. Winter, yet neither Dunlavy nor Rigdon ever denied the facts alleged [t]herein. We must, therefore, accept the facts stated as true, and they fasten upon Rigdon such religious dishonesty as establishes his willingness to be a party to a religious fraud in kind like the one here charged against him.

    This, then, brings us to the question of what, if any, opportunity Rigdon had for stealing Spaulding's manuscript from Patterson's publishing office.

    (65) Mormonism Exposed, by Williams, copied in Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? page 13.
    (66) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 13. Baptist Witness (Pittsburg), January 1, 1875.




    It has been frequently charged that Sidney Rigdon lived in Pittsburg and was connected with the Patterson printing office during 1815 and 1816. To this charge Rigdon, under date Commerce (Ill.), May 27, 1839, makes the following denial:

    It is only necessary to say in relation to the whole story about Spaulding's writings being in the hands of Mr. Patterson, who was then in Pittsburg, and who is said to have kept a private printing office, and my saying that I was connected with the same office, etc., etc., is the most base of lies, without even the shadow of truth. There was no man by the name of Patterson during my residence in Pittsburg who had a printing office; what might have been before I lived there, I know not. Mr. Robert Patterson, I was told, had owned a printing office before I lived in that city, but had been unfortunate in business and failed before my residence in Pittsburg. This Mr. Patterson, who was a Presbyterian preacher, I had a very slight acquaintance with during my residence there.  He was then acting under an agency in the book and stationery business, and was the owner of no property of any kind, printing office, or anything else during the time I resided in that city. If I were to say that I ever heard of the Rev. Solomon Spaulding and his hopeful wife until Dr. P. Hurlburt wrote his lie about me, I should be a liar like unto themselves. (67)

    The evidence upon which is based the charge of Rigdon having a permanent residence in Pittsburg during the years in question, or his connection with Patterson's printing office, is so unsatisfactory that these issues must be found in favor of Rigdon's denial, even in spite of the fact that his evidence is discredited by reason of the conclusion as to his guilt, which is to be hereafter set forth, and his personal interest.

    Rigdon, it will be remembered, lived within from six to ten miles of Pittsburg during the years in question. Pittsburg was the only town of consequence, and the family's place of buying and selling. Rigdon would of necessity make many friends in the city, and it would not be strange if almost everybody knew him and he knew all of the prominent citizens. In 1810 Pittsburg had only about 4,000 inhabitants, and in 1820 had but 7,248.

    The very prevalent notion as to Rigdon's connection with the Patterson publishing establishment must have had some origin,

    (67) Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, 11 and 12.  History of the Mormons, 45 and 46. The Mormons, 34.  Braden-Kelley Debate, 94.  [cf: "Plain Facts Showing the Falsehood and Folly of the Rev. C. S. Bush," pp. 14 -16.]



    which, in all probability, would be Rigdon's close friendship for some who were, in fact, connected with it. Upon this theory only can we account for such a general impression. (68)

    It might be well, before entering upon that subject, to fix in our minds Patterson's business mutations. In 1812 Patterson was in the book business in the firm of Patterson and Hopkins. They had then in their employ one J. Harrison Lambdin, he being a lad of fourteen. January 1, 1818, Lambdin was taken into the partnership of Patterson and Lambdin, which firm succeeded R. and J. Patterson. R. Patterson had in his employ one Silas Engles as foreman printer and superintendent of the printing business. As such, the latter decided upon the propriety, or otherwise, of publishing manuscripts when offered. The partnership of Patterson and Lambdin had under its control the book store on Fourth Street, a book bindery, a printing office (not newspaper, but job office, under the name of Butler and Lambdin), entrance on Diamond alley, and a steam paper mill on the Allegheny (under the name of R. and J. Patterson).(69) Patterson and Lambdin continued in business until 1823. Lambdin died August 1, 1825, in his twenty- seventh year. Silas Engles died July 17, 1827, in his forty-sixth year. R. Patterson died September 5, 1854, in his eighty-second year. (70)


    Let us now analyze Mr. Rigdon's denial of 1839 as quoted above. Rigdon was an educated man, a controversialist in religion, and at the date of the denial he was also a lawyer. Therefore we are justified in holding him in a strict accountability for all that is necessarily implied from what he says or omits to say, as we could not, in justice, do with a layman.

    Rigdon's first denial is of the "Story about Spaulding's writings being in the hands of Patterson." This story is established by the evidence already adduced and some besides, even to the satisfaction of most Mormons.

    The negative of this proposition Mr. Rigdon, if he was a stranger to the office, as is claimed, could not possibly assert as a matter within his own knowledge. If Rigdon had in his mind any fact upon which he justified this assertion, it could only have been a knowledge that the manuscript was at the printing

    (68) See: Who Wrote Book of Mormon? 11.
    (69) Myth of the Manuscript Found, 26.  Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 9.
    (70) Who Wrote Book of Mormon? 7 and 9. covers all Patterson's migrations.



    office of Butler and Lambdin, not knowing that office was controlled by Patterson.

    The second denial in Rigdon's statement is: "There was no man by the name of Patterson during my residence in Pittsburg who had a printing office." The foregoing account of Patterson's business affairs is made up from the information possessed by Patterson's family and an employee. It must, therefore, be accepted as correct. Here again Rigdon's denial can be accounted for by assuming his ignorance of Patterson's interest in the printing office known as Butler and Lambdin. Rigdon's son says Rigdon lived in Pittsburg in 1818. Church biographers allege that he preached there regularly after January 28, 1822. During 1818 and 1822 Patterson was in the printing business, and Rigdon's statement must be deemed untrue.

    Howe, in his "Mormonism Unveiled," (71) did as early as 1834, charge that Rigdon had been "on intimate terms" with Lambdin. This statement in many forms has been very often republished since, and between 1834 and 1876, the year of Rigdon's death. During these forty-two years Rigdon never recorded a denial. That fact may, therefore, be taken as true.  If Rigdon was on terms of intimacy with Lambdin, and Lambdin, at the time of that intimacy, as is clearly established and undenied, was connected with Patterson in the publishing business, Rigdon, being intimate with him, must have known something of Patterson's business, and assuming his mental faculties unimpaired, he in the statement under consideration, must have told what he knew was untrue, justifying himself by the apparent evidence in his favor that Patterson's printing office was not run in his own name. 

    Rigdon's third matter of denial relates to his own admission of a connection with Patterson's printing establishment. This denial we must accept as true, since no one to whom he is alleged to have made the admission has ever recorded his evidence, and the hearsay statements without certainty of origin are too indefinite to be entitled to weight.

    This paragraph above quoted and thus analyzed absolutely denies nothing in the remotest degree essential to the real issues involved in the charge of plagiarism under investigation, and is absolutely the only recorded public denial ever made by Rigdon, though from 1834 to 1876 he was almost continually under the

    (71) p. 289.



    fire of this charge, reiterated in various forms and with varying proofs.


    Heretofore we have argued that by his silence Rigdon admitted his intimacy with Lambdin, successively Patterson's employee and partner from 1812 to 1823. The early writers all treated the intimacy between Rigdon and Lambdin as a matter apparently too well known to need proof. Yet we need not rely upon that, nor even Rigdon's failure to deny, since more definite evidence has been preserved. 

    Mrs. R. J. Eichbaum, under date of Pittsburg, September 18, 1879, leaves us this very convincing statement:

    My father, John Johnston, was postmaster at Pittsburg for about eighteen years, from 1804 to 1822. My husband, William Eichbaum, succeeded him, and was postmaster for about eleven years, from 1822 to 1833. I was born August 25, 1792, and when I became old enough I assisted my father in attending to the post-office, and became familiar with his duties. From 1811 to 1816 I was the regular clerk in the office, assorting, making up, dispatching, opening, and distributing the mails. Pittsburg was than a small town, and I was well acquainted with all the stated visitors at the office who called regularly for their mails. So meager at that time were the mails that I could generally tell without looking whether or not there was anything for such persons, though I would usually look in order to satisfy them. I was married in 1815, and the next year my connection with the office ceased, except during the absences of my husband. I knew and distinctly remember Robert and Joseph Patterson, J. Harrison Lambdin, Silas Engles, and Sidney Rigdon. I remember Rev. Mr. Spaulding, but simply as one who occasionally called to inquire for letters. I remember there was an evident intimacy between Lambdin and Rigdon. They very often came to the office together. I particularly remember that they would thus come during the hour on Sabbath afternoon when the office was required to be open, and I remember feeling sure that Rev. Mr. Patterson knew nothing of this, or he would have put a stop to it. I do not know what position, if any, Rigdon filled in Patterson's store or printing office, but am well assured he was frequently, if not constantly, there for a large part of the time when I was clerk in the post-office. I recall Mr. Engles saying that



    'Rigdon was always hanging around the printing office.' He was connected with the tannery before he became a preacher, though he may have continued the business whilst preaching. (72)

    While this does not establish that Sidney Rigdon had a permanent abode in Pittsburg, nor that he was connected with Patterson's printing establishment, it yet explains why seemingly everybody who knew him reached that conclusion. It also establishes beyond doubt his undeniable intimacy with Lambdin and Engles, and by reason thereof, his possible access to Spaulding's manuscript, and doubtless is one of the circumstances leading Spaulding to suspect Rigdon of the theft.


    It will be remembered that in 1822-3 Rigdon was a Baptist preacher in Pittsburg. The Rev. John Winter, M. D., one of western Pennsylvania's early preachers, was then (1822-3) a school teacher in Pittsburg. Dr. Winter died at Sharon, Pa., in 1878.

    On one occasion during this period (1822-3) Dr. Winter was in Rigdon's study when the latter took from his desk a large manuscript, and said, substantially, that a Presbyterian minister named Spaulding, whose health had failed, brought it to a printer to see if it would not pay to publish it. "It is a romance of the Bible." Dr. Winter did not read the manuscript, nor think any more of the matter until the Book of Mormon appeared. It was thought by members of Dr. Winter's family that he had committed his recollections of this interview to writing, but none could be found.

    The authorities for Dr. Winter's statement are Rev. A. G. Kirk, to whom Dr. Winter communicated it in a conversation had at New Brighton, Pa., in 1870-1. The second authority is the Rev. A. J. Bonsall, a son-in-law [stepson?] of Dr. Winter, and for twenty-three years pastor of the Baptist Church at Rochester, Pa. To him the same story was often repeated by Dr. Winter. The third authority is Mrs. W. Irvine, a daughter of Dr. Winter, in 1881 resident at Sharon, Pa. Her statement has one or two details not already given, so I quote:

    "I have frequently heard my father speak of Rigdon having Spaulding's manuscript, and that he had gotten it from the printers

    (72) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 10-11.



    to read it as a curiosity; as such he showed it to father; and that at the time Rigdon had no intention of making the use of it that he afterward did." (73)

    Thus authenticated, Dr. Winter's statement may be given as much weight as though reduced to writing by himself.


    The Rev. Adamson Bentley (whose wife was sister to Mrs. Sidney Rigdon) wrote the following to Walter Scott under date of January 22, 1841:

    "I know that Sidney Rigdon told me that there was a book coming out, the manuscript of which had been found engraved on gold plates, as much as two years before the Mormon book made its appearance or had been heard of by me."

    This statement was published in the Millennial Harbinger for 1844, with the following editorial note from Rev. Alexander Campbell:

    The conversation alluded to in Brother Bentley's letter of 1841 was in my presence as well as his, and my recollection of it led me, some two or three years ago, to interrogate Brother Bentley touching his recollection of it, which accorded with mine in every particular, except the year in which it occurred, he placing it in the summer of 1827, I in the summer of 1826, Rigdon at the same time observing that in the plates dug up in New York there was an account, not only of the aborigines of this country, but also it was stated that the Christian religion had been preached in this country during the first century, just as we were preaching it in the Western Reserve. (74)

    It will be remembered that Rigdon lived for a time at his brother-in-law Bentley's house, and that it was Scott, Campbell, and Rigdon who, in Pittsburg, organized the Disciple Church in 1824 or 1825. The above statements were published in the Millennial Harbinger in 1844 (page 39), twenty-two years before Rigdon's death, yet he never published a denial to either.  It seems that before that publication Adamson Bentley was orally making statements, probably to the same effect, which remained undenied by Rigdon, though he published a card denouncing his brother-in-law. (75)

    (73) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 11-12.  Braden-Kelley Debate, 42.
    (74) Besides Millennial Harbinger 1844, p. 39, see Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 12 and 13.  Braden-Kelley Debate, 45.
    (75) Evening and Morning Star, 301.



    Mrs. Amos Dunlap, a niece of Mrs. Rigdon, under date of Warren, Ohio, December 7, 1879, writes this:

    "When I was quite a child I visited Mr. Rigdon's family.  He married my aunt. They at that time lived at Bainbridge, Ohio. (1826-7 A.T.S.). During my visit Mr. Rigdon went to his bedroom and took from a trunk which he kept locked, a certain manuscript. He came out into the other room and seated himself by the fireplace and commenced reading it. His wife at that moment came into the room and exclaimed: 'What, you are studying that thing again?' or something to that effect. She then added: 'I mean to burn that paper.' He said, 'No indeed, you will not; this will be a great thing some day.' Whenever he was reading this he was so completely occupied that he seemed entirely unconscious of anything passing around him." (76)

    Since Rigdon never, in person or by anyone else, has claimed to have written any such manuscript of his own, in the light of other evidence here adduced, we are warranted in believing that to have been Spaulding's "Manuscript Found."

    The Rev. D. Atwater, under date Mantua Station, O., April 26, 1873, three years before Rigdon's death, writes this:

    "Soon after this the great Mormon defection came on us (Disciples). Sidney Rigdon preached for us, and notwithstanding his extravagantly wild freaks, he was held in high repute by many. For a few months before his professed conversion to Mormonism, it was noticed that his wild, extravagant propensities had been more marked. That he knew before of the coming of the Book of Mormon is to me certain from what he said (during) the first of his visits at my father's some years before. He gave a wonderful description of the mounds and other antiquities found in some parts of America, and said that they must have been made by the aborigines. He said that there was a book to be published containing an account of those things. He spoke of these in his eloquent, enthusiastic style, as being a thing most extraordinary. Though a youth then, I took him to task for expending so much enthusiasm on such a subject, instead of things of the gospel." (77)

    Of this statement Rigdon never made a denial.

    Dr. S. Rosa, under date of Painesville, Ohio, June 3, 1841, writes, among other things, this:

    (76) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 12.  Braden-Kelley Debate, 45.
    (77) Early History of the Disciples in the Western Reserve, 239-240, copied in Who Wrote the Book of Mormon? 13.  Braden-Kelley Debate, 45.



    "In the early part of the year 1830, when the Book of Mormon appeared, (and in November of which year Rigdon was converted, A.T.S.), either in May or June, I was in company with Sidney Rigdon, and rode with him on horseback a few miles. Our conversation was principally upon the subject of religion, as he was at that time a very popular preacher of the denomination calling themselves 'Disciples' or Campbellites. He remarked to me that it was time for a new religion to spring up; that mankind were all rife and ready for it. I thought he alluded to the Campbellite doctrine. He said it would not be long before something would make its appearance; he also said that he thought of leaving [for] Pennsylvania, and should be absent for some months. I asked him how long. He said it would depend upon circumstances. I began to think a little strange of his remarks, as he was a minister of the gospel.  I left Ohio that fall and went to the state of New York to visit my friends who lived in Waterloo, not far from the mine of golden Bibles. In November I was informed that my old neighbor, E. Partridge, and the Rev. Sidney Rigdon, were in Waterloo, and that they both had become the dupes of Joe Smith's necromancies. It then occurred to me that Rigdon's new religion had made its appearance, and when I became informed of the Spaulding manuscript, I was confirmed in the opinion that Rigdon was at least accessory, if not the principal, in getting up this farce." (78) 

    This last article was first published in book form in 1842, thirty-four years before Rigdon's death, but never publicly denied or explained by him. Whether this particular letter was published in the Christian Observer and Episcopal Recorder I cannot say, but other portions of the same book evidently were, and received comment in a Mormon church organ. (79) This but emphasizes Rigdon's silence upon Dr. Rosa's letter.

    In Howe's "Mormonism Unveiled," (80) it is said that Rigdon, during the incubation period of Mormonism between 1827 and 1830, preached new matters of doctrine which were afterwards found to be inculcated in the Mormon Bible. The evident purpose of all this was to prepare his congregation for the acceptance of Mormonism, and the end was most successfully achieved. Evidently this and the other circumstances showing Rigdon's foreknowledge of the forthcoming Book of Mormon,

    (78) Gleanings by the Way, 317.  Prophet of the Nineteenth Century, 58.  Early Days of Mormonism, 172-3.
    (79) Gospel Reflector, 19.
    (80) Page 289. Braden-Kelley Debate, 45.



    all combined with a guilty conscience, irresistibly impelled the making of an explanation tending to allay the suspicion that there was a conscious purpose in all such conduct. This defense is found in a revelation to Sidney Rigdon, dated December 7, 1830, at the alleged first meeting between Rigdon and Smith, and within one month after the former's conversion. The revelation, in part, says:

    "Behold thou was sent forth, even as John, TO PREPARE THE WAY before me, and before Elijah which should come, AND THOU KNEWEST IT NOT." (81)

    That Rigdon did prepare the way we knew before the revelation informed us of it. That it was done unconsciously we cannot even now believe.

    Especially in the light of the foregoing evidence, this revelation must be construed as much more convincing proof of Rigdon's advance knowledge of the forthcoming Book of Mormon and its contents than even a tacit admission.

    It is practically an admission of guilty knowledge, coupled with a transparent effort at warding off the inference of complicity in fraud by veiling the acts constituting the evidence in an assumed mysticism, which really deceives few aside from the mystic degenerate and the willing victim who enters the fold for opportunities to "fleece the flock of Christ."


    When to this evidence already adduced is added, as will be done, conclusive proof of the identity of the salient features of the Book of Mormon and Spaulding's rewritten "Manuscript Found," it would seem that the case of plagiarism through Rigdon's complicity is established beyond reasonable doubt. The Mormon objector, however, insists that no possible connection between Rigdon and Smith has ever been shown to exist prior to 1830, and that, therefore, even if Rigdon did steal the manuscript, Smith could not have obtained it for use as a help in preparing the Book of Mormon. It would seem as if the facts above recited should, even if unaided by more direct evidence, raise an almost conclusive presumption of the existence of an undiscovered connection between the two. But we are not confined to an inference from such evidence alone. There are still more pointed evidentiary circumstances to which we will now give attention.

    (81) Section 35, Doctrine and Covenants. Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 50. The exact date of this revelation is December 7th, 1830, according to Howe's Mormonism Unveiled. 107.



    Parley Parker Pratt was born at Burlington, Otsego County, N. Y., April 12, 1807, of parents who later resided at Canaan, Columbia County, N. Y.(85) During his sixth year (1813) he went to reside with his father's sister, named Van Cott,(83) which name afterward became conspicuous in the early history of Utah. In 1826 Pratt spent a few months with an uncle in Wayne (formerly Ontario) County, N. Y. (84) This, it will be remembered, is the same county in which Smith was at that time gaining much newspaper notoriety as a "peep-stone" money digger (85) through mention made of him in papers published in several counties in southern New York and northern Pennsylvania.(86) While Smith was thus working the gullible of his neighborhood with his necromancy, Pratt was a peddler, who, it is said, knew almost everybody in western New York. (87) At that time Ontario County took in all the territory of several counties as now bounded, and in 1820 had only a population of 80,267. (88) Pratt, therefore, could hardly have helped knowing Smith's fame, which was such as at once to have suggested him as the star actor in any scheme of fraud requiring a prophet. In view of Pratt's subsequent connection with the Wells family,(89) who were Smith's neighbors and friends, (90) it is more than probable that he knew the Smiths personally in or prior to 1826, although, of course, they would carefully guard the fact of such acquaintance from publicity as a most important secret.

    In October of this year Pratt went to Ohio, locating at Amherst, thirty miles west of Cleveland (91) and was also located fifty miles west of Kirtland.(92) One of the temptations inducing Pratt's departure from New York was to get to a country where, as he himself expresses it, there is "no law to sweep (away) all the hard earnings of years to pay a small debt." (96) The ethical status of an average country peddler who is willing to leave his native state to avoid the payment of his "small debts" furnishes a fertile immorality in which to plant the seeds of religious imposture.

    It will be remembered that it was also in 1826 that Rigdon

    (82) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 17.
    (83) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 19.
    (84) Supplement 14, Millennial Star 1.
    (85) Origin, Rise, and Progress of Mormonism, 27.
    (86) Braden-Kelly Debate, 47
    (87) Hand Book of Mormonism, 3.
    (88) Compendium, 11th Census.
    (89) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 37.
    (90) Joseph Smith, the Prophet, by Lucy Smith, 101-2-3.
    (91) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 27.
    (92) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 50.
    (93) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 26.



    went for a second time to reside in Ohio, where he became an itinerant "Disciple" preacher, laboring in the vicinity of Bainbridge, Mantua, Kirtland, Mentor, Chester, New Lisbon, and Warren,(94) at some of which places Rigdon had an unsavory reputation. (95) Rigdon and Pratt, therefore, were in the same neighborhood in 1826, and undoubtedly met soon after. The date of their first meeting is nowhere given, but may reasonably be inferred from an address delivered by Parley P. Pratt in 1843 or '4. In this discourse Pratt tells of an occurrence which transpired on his way to his future Ohio home, which occurrence furnishes the key to his first connection with Mormonism. On his way he stopped at an humble cottage, the name of whose occupant he carefully fails to give. Here, while asleep (so he says), "a messenger of a mild and intelligent countenance suddenly stood before me (Pratt), arrayed in robes of dazzling splendor." According to Mormon theology, an angel is but an exalted man. (96) Of course Sidney Rigdon was an exalted man; why not, then, an angel?   This angel claimed to hold the keys to the mysteries of this wonderful country, and took Pratt out to exhibit those mysteries to him. Pratt then had portrayed to his mind the whole future of Mormonism; its cities, with inhabitants from all parts of the globe; its temples, with a yet unattained splendor; its present church organization was, with considerable definiteness, outlined; its political ambition to establish a temporal kingdom of God on the ruins of this government was set forth with quite as much definiteness as in the subsequent more publicly uttered, treasonable sermons.(97) I conclude from the exact manner in which this "Angel of the Prairies" foreknew the ambitions, hopes, and future achievements of the Mormon Church and the similar admitted foreknowledge of Rigdon and the subsequently established connection between Rigdon, Pratt, and Smith, that the "Angel of the Prairies" who outlined to Pratt his then contemplated and now executed religious fraud, was none other than Sidney Rigdon himself, and that this fact accounts for Pratt's failure to give the name of his host or the date of his first meeting with Rigdon. (98)

    (94) 1 History of the Church, 149-150 [Josephite].
    (95) 4 Times and Seasons, 209.  Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 45.
    (96) See Text for foot-notes, Nos. 96-97-98. 6 Millennial Star, 20.  History of Mormonism, 64.
    (97) 20 Millennial Star, 33-36.  7 Deseret News, 288-9.  7 Journal of Discourses, 53. 1 Journal of Discourses, 230, and Sermons generally of this period. [See also American History Magazine July 1906.].
    (98) "The Angel of the Prairies, a Dream of the Future," pp. 7 to 24, being a republication from the "Northern Light" of a sermon delivered by P. P. Pratt, in Nauvoo, Ill." Long before this Rigdon is reported to have related somewhat similar visions; Howe's "Mormonism Unveiled," 217.



    Lambdin, who, by some has been suspected of once having been Rigdon's partner in the contemplated fraud, died August 1, 1825. Engles, Patterson's foreman, died July 17, 1827.  Spaulding had died in 1816, and Robert Patterson, it seems, knew nothing personally of the contents of the Spaulding manuscript, (99) which fact Rigdon probably well knew through his intimate acquaintance with Lambdin. In September of 1827 the time was, therefore, as ripe as it was ever likely to be for active preparation in the matter of bringing forth the "Book of Mormon," since probably all those having any intimate knowledge of the "Manuscript Found" had conveniently died.

    In 1827 Pratt started back to New York for the purpose of getting married. Now, remember, this was nearly three years before the advent of Mormonism. Pratt reached the home of his aunt Van Cott July 4, 1827, and in his autobiography records a summary of a conversation with his future wife thus: "I also opened my religious views to her and my desire, which I sometimes had, to try and teach the red man." (100)  In October, 1830, within a month after Pratt's professed conversion to Mormonism, a revelation was received for Pratt, in which the Lord, through "Joseph Smith, the Prophet," directed Pratt to carry out this very design. (101) The desire which Pratt thus expressed to his wife three years before the advent of Mormonism was afterward and for a long time, the pet scheme of all Mormons. Pratt was married September 9, 1827. (102) On September 22, 1827, a "heavenly messenger" appeared to Joseph Smith and unfolded to him the scheme of the Book of Mormon, and disclosed the whereabouts of the "Golden Plates."(103) This "heavenly messenger" is called the Angel Moroni. According to Mormon theology, "God may use any beings he has made or that he pleases, and call them his angels, or messengers." (104) "God's angels and men are all of one species, one race, one great family."(105) "God is a man like unto yourselves; that is the great secret." (106) Why, of course! "That is the great secret." God is but an "exalted man," and may call Parley Parker Pratt his angel. Parley Parker Pratt was the "heavenly messenger," the angel who, on that day

    (99) Mormonism Exposed, by Williams.  Who Wrote the Book of Mormon, 7.
    (100) Page 29 and 30.
    (101) Section 32, Doctrine and Covenants. Smith's God was, however, unfamiliar with governmental regulations of Indian affairs, so in spite of the revelation Pratt and Company were compelled by the United States Indian agent to leave the reservation. 5 Journal of Discourses, 199. Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 218-226.  Gleanings by the Way, 324.
    (102) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 30.
    (103) Supplement 14, Millennial Star. 6.
    (104) 5 Journal of Discourses, 141.
    (105) Key to Theology, 41. [see also 5 Millennial Star, 20.]
    (106) 5 Times and Seasons 613. "God an Exalted Man," 6 Journal of Discourses, 3.



    (September 22, 1827), appeared to Joseph Smith and told him where were the golden plates, that is, Spaulding's "Manuscript Found." Sidney Rigdon, for Smith's purposes, was the "exalted man," the "God" who sent this "heavenly messenger," Parley Parker Pratt, just as the Mormon people now look upon Joseph Smith as the "God to this people." (107) Now, watch the sequel, and no doubt can remain.

    September 9, 1827, Pratt was married. On September 22, 1827, he was the angel who appeared to Smith, and in October he started back to Ohio, the home of Rigdon. (108) Rigdon is now brought again upon the scene. He preaches in Pratt's neighborhood, converts him, the latter commences preaching,(109) evidently preparing for his part in the drama about to be enacted.


    The work of revising the Spaulding manuscript, or, as "Holy Joe" calls it, the "Translation of the Golden Plates," is begun. A mysterious stranger now appears at Smith's residence and holds private interviews with the far-famed money-digger. For a considerable length of time no intimation of the name or the purpose of this personage transpired to the public, or even to Smith's nearest neighbors. It was observed by some of them that his visits were frequently repeated.(110) At about this time Rigdon is away from his Ohio home on several long visits, reporting himself as having gone to Pittsburg. (111)

    Abel Chase, a near neighbor of the Smiths, says: "I saw Rigdon at Smith's at different times with considerable intervals between." Lorenzo Saunders, another neighbor, testifies: "I saw Rigdon at Smith's several times, and the first visit was more than two years before the Book appeared." J. H. McCauley, in his history of Franklin County, Pa., states

    (107) Deseret News, March 18, 1857, 13.  See also 7 Deseret News, 179. Those most familiar with the psychology of Dreams and the influence over them had by the experiences of waking life, will give considerable evidentiary weight to a dream of the Prophet's father, in which there appeared to him a "man with a peddler's budget on his back," such as peddler P. P. Pratt probably carried. This peddler of his dreams flattered him, told him he had called seven times and on this last call had come to tell him what was the one thing essential to his salvation, and then he awoke. (Joseph Smith, the Prophet, 74.)
    (108) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 30.
    (109) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 31-33.
    (110) Origin and Progress of Mormonism, 28. The author was a native of Palmyra and read proof on the Book of Mormon. Hand Book of Mormonism, 3.  This author lived 32 years in Palmyra.  Braden-Kelly Debate, 46.  Mother Lucy in Joseph Smith, the Prophet, pp. 119, 120, 121, gives an account of a mysterious and unnamed "stranger" who came to their home with Joe at the time Harris had lost some of the manuscript of the Book of Mormon. As a mere matter of kindness this "stranger" forced upon the "Prophet" his company for a 20 mile walk through the woods at night, left a stage coach and went out of his way to do it, and attended the interview with Harris next day. An opportune time was this for Rigdon's presence. May 1, 1829, Sec. 10, Doctrine and Covenants.
    (111) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 289, followed in Gleanings by the Way, 319.  Prophet of the Nineteenth Century, 57. See also the pointed statement of L. Rudolph, father-in-law to President Garfield, quoted in Braden-Kelly Debate, 45.



    "As a matter too well known to need argument, that Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, and Sidney Rigdon were acquainted for a considerable time before Mormonism was first heard of. (112)

    I have been able to find but one specific denial of Rigdon's acquaintance with Smith prior to the appearance of the Book of Mormon. That denial comes from Katherine Salisbury, a sister of the "Prophet Joseph," and is dated April 15, 1881, when she was nearly 68 years of age. She says [that]:

    "Prior to the latter part of the year A.D. 1830, there was no person who visited with, or was an acquaintance of, or called upon the said family (of Smith), or any member thereof to my knowledge by the name of Rigdon, nor was such person known to the family or any member thereof to my knowledge, until the last part of the year A.D. 1830, or the first part of the year 1831. * * * * I remember the time when Sidney Rigdon came to my father's place, and that it was after the removal of my father from Waterloo, New York, to Kirtland, Ohio. That this was in the year 1831." (113)  

    In 1827 and 1828, when Rigdon's visits must have occurred, and his help was needed in revamping Spaulding's "Manuscript Found," this woman was fourteen or fifteen years of age. That Rigdon did visit at the Smiths in New York State, December, 1830, is admitted,(114) and of this she seemingly remembers nothing. She has no recollection of Rigdon's coming to her father's or brother's house until after their removal to Ohio. May she not also, either by design or otherwise, have forgotten visits made by Rigdon to her New York home prior to the admitted, and, by her, forgotten one in December, 1830?

    In the same statement she avers that "at the time of the publication of said Book (of Mormon), my brother Joseph Smith, Jr., lived in the family of my father in the town of Manchester, Ontario County, N. Y., and that he had all of his life to this time made his home with the family."

    The manuscript of the Book of Mormon was finished and the book copyrighted by June 11, 1829. (115) Rigdon's help would

    (112) See Braden-Kelly Debate, 46, for three last statements. Tucker in his Origin and Progress of Mormonism, p. 50, says Rigdon officiated at the wedding of Joseph Smith and Emma Hale, but he fixes date of wedding in November, 1829, when in fact it seem to have occurred January 18, 1827. (Historical Record, 363.) Tucker may therefore have been misinformed. An alleged admission of Sidney Rigdon to James Jeffries that Spaulding's story was used, which is quoted in Braden-Kelly Debate, 42, I consider of doubtful value.
    (113) Myth of the Manuscript Found, 34.  Braden-Kelly Debate, 100.
    (114) Supplement 14 Millennial Star, 49.
    (115) See certificate of copyright in first edition, Book of Mormon, and Supplement 14 Millennial Star, 24.



    be most needed before this time, and from June, 1828, until June, 1829, all and numerous revelations are dated "Harmony, Pennsylvania," which, together with Smith's autobiography, shows that he did not all of his lifetime make his home with his parents, nor live at Manchester during all of the most important period of Mormon incubation. The probabilities are that Smith moved to Pennsylvania at this time, for the very purpose of making it easier for Rigdon and Pratt, who lived in Ohio, to furnish him the much needed help.

    The admitted errors in Mrs. Salisbury's statement destroy its evidentiary value, and leave it clearly demonstrated by the other evidence adduced, that Rigdon visited Smith several years before the appearance of the Book of Mormon.


    In the summer of 1830 the Book of Mormon came from the press, and the time had come for Pratt and Rigdon to be astonished by its appearance. Now watch their maneuvers.

    In the summer of 1830 Pratt left Ohio for a visit to New York. Of this trip his autobiography records the following:

    "Landing in Buffalo, we (Pratt and wife) engaged our passage for Albany in a canal boat, distance three hundred and sixty miles. This, including board, cost all our money and some articles of clothing."

    Would a mere desire to visit friends induce him to give up part of his clothing for passage money? Hardly; he was after larger game. But let us read on:

    "Arriving in Rochester, I informed my wife that, notwithstanding our passage being paid through the whole distance, yet I must leave the boat and leave her to pursue her passage to our friends, while I would stop a while in this region. WHY, I DID NOT KNOW; but so it was plainly manifest by the Spirit to me. I said to her: 'We part for a season; go and visit our friends in our native place; I will come soon, but how soon I know not, FOR I HAVE A WORK TO DO IN THIS REGION OF COUNTRY, AND WHAT IT IS OR HOW LONG IT WILL TAKE ME TO PERFORM IT, I KNOW NOT; but I will come when it is performed. My wife would have objected to this, but she had seen the HAND OF GOD so plainly manifest in His dealings with me many times that she dare not oppose the things manifest to me by His Spirit. She therefore consented, and I accompanied her as far as Newark, a small town upwards of a hundred miles from Buffalo, and then took leave of her and of the boat."



    "It was early in the morning, just at the dawn of day. I walked ten miles into the country (remember now he doesn't know where he is going), and stopped with a Mr. Wells." This was undoubtedly a member of the same Wells family of Macedon with whom Joseph Smith had long been on terms of intimacy.(116) Pratt's autobiography continues:
    "I proposed to preach in the evening. Mr. Wells readily accompanied me through the neighborhood to visit the people and circulate the appointment."

    "We visited an old Baptist deacon by the name of Hamblin. After hearing of our appointment for the evening, he began to tell of a BOOK, A STRANGE BOOK, A VERY STRANGE BOOK in his possession, which had just been published. I inquired of him how and where the book was to be obtained. He promised me the perusal of it at his house the next day, if I would call. I felt a strange interest in the book. Next morning I called at his house, where, for the first time, my eyes beheld the 'Book of Mormon,' that book of books."

    Pratt says he opened it with eagerness and examined its contents. "As I read, THE SPIRIT OF THE LORD WAS UPON ME, and I knew and comprehended that the book was true as plainly and as manifestly as a man comprehends and knows that he exists." (117)

    Pratt soon determined to see Smith, and accordingly, visited Palmyra, where Hyrum Smith welcomed him to their house, and they spent the night together. Joseph had not returned from Pennsylvania. One is led to wonder if Hyrum Smith would take in every inquisitive stranger as his bedfellow. In the morning Pratt returned to fill his appointment to preach the doctrine of Alexander Campbell. Hyrum Smith presented Pratt with a copy of the book, which the latter tells us he was glad to receive, because he had not yet finished his reading of it.(118) Pratt preached the doctrines of the "Disciples" that night and the following one, then returned to the Smith house, and from there went to the Whitmers in Seneca Co., resting that night, and taking his Mormon baptism the next day. On the next Sabbath Pratt attended a Mormon meeting and preached a Mormon sermon at the house of one Burroughs. "My work was now completed, for which I took leave of my wife and the canal boat some two or three weeks before." (119)

    (116) Joseph Smith, the Prophet, by Lucy Smith, 101-103.  (Daniel H. Wells?)
    (117) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 37-38.
    (118) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 39-42.
    (119) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 43.



    About the details and the order of events in such remarkable occurrences, there could not possibly be doubt or errors of memory. Had they actually transpired, these events would have been the most important in any eventful career, and would have been indelibly impressed upon Pratt's memory. If, however, this marvelous tale is but a falsehood told to conceal Pratt's real connection with a fraud, then it is quite possible that he and those associated with him should forget how the falsehood had been told at other times, and thus produce contradictory statements.

    Let us, in the light of this comment, examine the foregoing account more carefully. Evidently in this account Pratt is desirous of conveying the impression that, as he has elsewhere expressed it, he "was greatly prejudiced against the book."(120) However, in a sermon delivered in 1856 -- thirty-two years before the publication of the autobiography -- Pratt tells us he was converted before completing the reading of the Book of Mormon, or meeting a single true "Saint." Here are his own words:

    "I know it was true, because it was light, and had come in fulfillment of scripture; and I BORE TESTIMONY OF ITS TRUTH to the neighbors that came in DURING THE FIRST DAY THAT I SAT READING it at the house of an old Baptist deacon named Hamblin." (121) 

    Of course such a conversion was altogether too miraculous and sudden to preclude suspicion of Pratt's complicity in the fraud; hence it has usually been stated that the conversion did not, in fact, take place until much critical examination, and sometimes, it is said, after much supplication to the Lord. In Joseph Smith's autobiography he puts the time of conversion as during Pratt's visit to the Whitmers in Seneca county. Here are his words: "AFTER listening to the testimony of the 'witnesses' (at Whitmers, in Seneca County) and reading the 'Book,' he became convinced that it was of God." (122)

    The "Prophet's" mother, who, with the mother of the Danite, Orin Porter Rockwell, was present at Pratt's alleged first visit to the Smith home, (123) has a third account of this conversion. Pratt, according to the account above quoted from his sermon, had not yet seen the prophet, and had not yet finished reading

    (120) Pratt's reply to Sunderland, copied in 45 Saint's Herald, 61.  Myth of the Manuscript Found, 32.
    (121) 5 Journal of Discourses, 194. This Hamblin seems to have emigrated to Wisconsin with Pratt, there became a Mormon and later his son became implicated in the Mountain Meadow Massacre. See "Jacob Hamblin," p. 9, and books generally on Mountain Meadow Massacre.
    (122) Supplement 14 Millennial Star, 47.
    (123) Pratt's Sermon, 5 Journal of Discourses, 194.



    the Book of Mormon, but was already converted and had borne testimony to its truth. Now read Mother Lucy's account as published by Orson Pratt (Parley Pratt's brother and his first miraculous convert)(124) and "written by the direction and under the inspection of the Prophet." (125)

    "Just before my husband's return, as Joseph was about commencing a discourse one Sunday morning, Parley P. Pratt came in very much fatigued. He had HEARD OF US at some considerable distance, and had traveled very fast in order to get there by meeting time, as he wished to hear what we had to say, that he might be prepared to show us our error. But when Joseph had finished his discourse, Mr. Pratt arose and expressed his hearty concurrence in every sentiment advanced. The following day he was baptized and ordained. (126)

    This conversion is quite as miraculous and sudden as the one Pratt tells us about as having occurred at Deacon Hamblin's. The prophet's mother, Lucy Smith, who wrote this account, and the prophet himself, under whose supervision it was written, must have been both present, and in this account related only what they pretended they themselves saw. In contradiction of this, Pratt, in two different places, tells us that while at the Whitmers in Seneca County he was baptized and ordained an elder by Oliver Cowdry, and that then he preached a Mormon sermon, after which he went to visit his friends in Columbia County.  On his return from Columbia County, over a month after he had been baptized, he for the first time saw Joseph Smith. (127) These discrepancies can be best accounted for by the explanation that they are different accounts of an event that never happened, and told to conceal one that did happen. 

    I understand that the Utah Mormon sect, after publishing "Mother Lucy's" book, condemned it as containing errors, but never pointed out any. The "Josephite" sect of Mormons, however, republished it. It still remains that in telling what she pretended to have seen, she told the story as at some time it had been agreed upon. Further, Lucy Smith could not have written the book, bad as it was from a literary point of view. The statement that it was written under the direct supervision of the prophet, I, therefore, consider as literally true. That it was

    (124) 7 Journal of Discourses, 177. Here Orson Pratt says his conversion is due to certain information "derived independent of what can be learned naturally by the natural man." See also supplement 14 Millennial Star, 49.
    (125) 15 Millennial Star, 169, 682.
    (126) Joseph Smith, the Prophet, 157, by Lucy Smith.
    (127) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 43 and 46.  45 Saint's Herald, 61.   Myth of the Manuscript Found, 33.



    published in 1853 by Orson Pratt and S. W. Richards, who had undoubtedly heard the stories corroborated many times and saw nothing erroneous in the book, is also significant, as is the further fact that it had been read by Saints four years before any errors were discovered.


    Pratt having been converted, the next act of importance must, of course, be the conversion of Rigdon, and, so far as possible, the congregation whose members he had so carefully prepared for the reception of Mormonism.

    Pratt is still in New York State with Smith, it being October, 1830. He has already converted his relatives. The Lord, by a revelation through Joseph Smith, (128) directs Pratt to go with Oliver Cowdry, Peter Whitmer, and Ziba Peterson "unto the wilderness among the Lamanites" (meaning the American Indians). Pratt, it will be remembered, had sold part of his clothing for passage money with which to travel in his quest for the Book of Mormon. He was, therefore, ill prepared for a winter trip to Ohio and Missouri. "As soon as the revelation was received, Emma Smith and several other sisters began to make arrangements to furnish those who were set apart for the mission with the necessary clothing, which was no easy task, as the most of it had to be manufactured out of the raw material." (129) Pratt's wife was taken to the Whitmers,(130) that she might not want while he was away converting Indians and Rigdon. Thus situated, Pratt took leave of his friends "late in October and started on foot." (131) According to his autobiography it was a hundred miles from Buffalo to Newark, ten miles from Newark to Macedon, where lived the Wells family, (132) and twenty-five miles from Palmyra to the Whitmers in Seneca County. (133) The distance from Buffalo to Cleveland is given as two hundred miles; (134) from Cleveland to Kirtland as thirty miles. (135) These distances were no doubt given as they were believed to be according to the roads as then traveled.

    Adding fifteen miles for the distance from Macedon to Palmyra,

    (128) Doctrine and Covenants, section 32. Supplement 14, Millennial Star, 42. The date of this revelation was probably October 17, 1830.  Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 212.
    (129) Joseph Smith, the Prophet, by Lucy Smith, 169.
    (130) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 49. 1 History of the Church, 154.
    (131) 1 History of the Church, 154. Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 154.
    (132) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 37
    (133) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 42.
    (134) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 36.
    (135) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 36.



    we find the total distance to be traveled, all on foot, going from Whitmer's home in Seneca County, N. Y., to Kirtland, Ohio, is three hundred and seventy miles, "preaching by the way,"(136) even to Indians. (137) When we remember the time of year and the almost certainty of inclement weather and the unimproved condition of the roads in that then wild west, it could hardly be expected that Pratt, traveling "on foot" and preaching by the way, could reach Kirtland before the middle of November. Rigdon must have been converted in great haste, because, by the end of November, he is already a Mormon visitor at Smith's home in New York, and on December 7 is the recipient of a special revelation from god.(138) These conclusions accord with the diary of Lyman Wight, who, being baptized on the same day as Rigdon, entered the fact as on November 14, 1830. (139) These facts also confirm Howe's statement that Rigdon was baptized on the second day after Pratt's arrival. (140)  Another authority conversant with the occurrence, and desiring to be very exact, fixes the time as thirty-six hours after Pratt's arrival. (141)

    The Mormons are not all dull, and their cunning leaders readily saw that it would be unwise to advertise the suddenness of this conversion, since it might serve to identify the guilty conspirators. Therefore it is now represented that Pratt and Rigdon were at first in a state of great antagonism to Mormonism, which it took weeks to overcome. (142) This cannot be, unless Pratt could walk three hundred and seventy miles in less than no time at all.

    The facts of this sudden conversion and the subsequent concealment of its precipitate character all reveal a guilt on the part of those who are conscious of having done something they wish to keep from the knowledge of others. Had this conversion been honestly miraculous, there would have been no thought of concealment.

    November 14, 1830, the date of Rigdon's baptism, was Sunday, and of course the first Sunday after the arrival of Pratt. At their first interview during this visit, Pratt requested and "readily" received permission to preach Mormonism in Rigdon's church. The Prophet's account says:(143)

    (136) "Joseph Smith, the Prophet," 169, by Lucy Smith.
    (137) Autobiography of P. P. Pratt, 49. 1 History of the Church, 154.
    (138) Gleanings by the Way, 317.  Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 107.  Doctrine and Covenants, Section 32.
    (139) 1 History of the Church, 154; see also Pratt's Autobiography, 50.
    (140) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 104.  Gleanings by the Way, 312.
    (141) H. H. Clapp in a letter to James T. Cobb.
    (142) Life of Sidney Rigdon in manuscript by his son, John Rigdon. 1 History of the Church 141. Supplement 14 Millennial Star, 47-48, 4 Times and Seasons, 290.  45 Saint's Herald, 61.
    (143) Supplement 14 Millennial Star, 47.



    "At the conclusion (of Pratt's sermon) Elder Rigdon arose and stated to the congregation that the information that they had received was of an extraordinary character, and certainly demanded their most serious consideration, and as the Apostle advised his brethren to 'prove all things, and hold fast that which is good,' so he would exhort his brethren to do likewise, and give the matter a careful investigation, and not turn against it without being fully convinced of its being an imposition, lest they should possibly resist the truth. This was indeed generous on the part of Elder Rigdon, and gave evidence of his entire freedom from any sectarian bias."

    But according to Elder Lyman Wight's diary and the other evidence here adduced, Rigdon was already a convert. Why, then, all this false suggestion and hypocritical cant about Rigdon's generosity and freedom from prejudice? There is but one answer, and that is, the authors of it are thereby attempting to conceal the real facts.

    On December 7, 1830, and with due promptness, be it observed, Rigdon, through Smith, received a revelation making him (Rigdon) scribe to the prophet, and informing Rigdon how, all unconsciously to himself, he had been preparing the way for Mormonism. (144) This is speedily followed by another revelation, (145) in which Rigdon's Ohio home, where he so carefully prepared the people for the reception of his new faith, is designated as the gathering place of the faithful, the promised land of the "Saints."


    Thus far we have established in a general way the existence and nature of Solomon Spaulding's rewritten "Manuscript Found." By undenied evidence we have shown its theft from Patterson's printing office before Spaulding's death and under circumstances which made the latter suspect Sidney Rigdon as the thief; that Rigdon, prior to this time, was so intimate with the employees of that printing office as to give rise to a general belief that he was himself employed there, and beyond all question evidencing an intimacy such as afforded him opportunity to purloin the manuscript. By like uncontradicted evidence, we have shown Rigdon to have been in possession of a similar manuscript, the existence of which is not explained by any other literary

    (144) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 107.  Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 32. 7 Journal of Discourses, 372.
    (145) Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 37.



    work ever done by him, and which, on one of the several occasions when he exhibited it, was said by him to have been written by Spaulding. We have established a perfectly plain and probable connection between Smith and Rigdon through Parley P. Pratt, and such contradictory statements as to the sudden and miraculous conversions of the two latter as bring home with redoubled force the suspicion of a concealed motive, such as a conspiracy in fraud would best explain. It now remains only to make more certain the points of identity between Spaulding's rewritten "Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon. When this is done, we will have established the plagiarism and convicted Smith, Rigdon, and Pratt as the conspirators who perpetrated the fraud. With the identity of the distinguishing features in the "Manuscript Found" and Book of Mormon established, we will have demonstrated beyond all REASONABLE doubt the very low origin of the Mormons' Book. Some day will be done a work of supererogation in making a critical examination of the absurdities and contradictions upon which rest the claim of divinity. Present space will only allow the completion of that branch of the argument under consideration. 

    Before proceeding to the examination of the direct evidence, it will be well to give an account of the discovery of this identity, the very spontaneity of which adds force to the evidence adduced. Spaulding, like most authors had a great fondness for his productions, and often read them to his friends. In 1832 or 1833, when Mormonism was fairly afloat, a Mormon preacher brought a copy of the Book of Mormon to Conneaut or New Salem, as it was sometimes called, the very place where Spaulding wrote most of his "Manuscript Found." A public meeting was appointed, in which the Book of Mormon was copiously read from and discussed by the elder. The historical part and style were immediately recognized by many present, among them John Spaulding, brother to Solomon Spaulding. Being "eminently pious," he was amazed and afflicted that his brother's manuscript should have been perverted to so wicked a purpose. With tear-filled eyes he arose in the meeting and expressed sorrow and regret that the writings of his sainted brother should be used for a purpose so vile and shocking.  So much excitement was produced that a citizens' meeting appointed Dr. Philastrus Hurlburt to gather the evidence which afterwards was published in Howe's "Mormonism Unveiled." (146)

    (146) Gleanings by the Way, 252-3.  Mormons' Own Book, 29-30.  Prophet of Palmyra, 417, et. seq.  Boston Recorder, May, 1839.



    In the first publication of Matilda Spaulding Davidson's letter, from which the above is gleaned, the words "Mormon preacher" in the manuscript published over her name were, by the typesetter, converted into "woman preacher." Mormons at once undertook to impeach the statement, not by denying the main features of the story or its value as an argument, but wholly upon the ground that Mormons never had a "woman" preacher. As the result of this criticism, it was shown to have been due solely to typographical error, (147) thus leaving the statement as corrected free from criticism upon this ground. The very spontaneity of this outburst and its surrounding circumstances absolutely preclude every imputation of premeditation, every suspicion of personal interest, and every impeachment based upon an assumed hatred of Mormonism. Further, when we in addition remember that this occurrence was comparatively close to the time when Spaulding read his manuscript to many of those present in this same audience, then this circumstance will rightfully be accorded a very great evidentiary weight. 

    The evidence gathered by Dr. Philastrus Hurlburt pursuant to the citizens' meeting of Conneaut was first published in Howe's "Mormonism Unveiled," in 1834, and is the most important single collection of original evidence ever made upon this subject.  We will first examine that evidence in so far as it relates to the identity of Spaulding's "Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon, afterwards introducing such corroborating evidence as may be at hand.  Unless otherwise indicated, the following evidence was taken before and published in 1834 by E. D. Howe in the nineteenth chapter of his "Mormonism Unveiled." The first witness introduced is John Spaulding, who lived with his brother Solomon Spaulding at Conneaut, Ohio. Of a book his brother had been writing John Spaulding says this:

    "The book he was writing was entitled "Manuscript Found,"of which he read to me many passages. It was an historical romance of the first settlers of America, endeavoring to show that the American Indians are the descendants of the Jews, or the lost tribes. It gave a detailed account of their journey from Jerusalem by land and sea till they arrived in America under the command of NEPHI and LEHI. They afterwards had quarrels and contentions and separated into distinct nations, one of which

    (147) Gleanings by the Way, 264.



    he denominated NEPHITES and the other LAMANITES. Cruel and bloody wars ensued in which great multitudes were slain. They buried their dead in large heaps, which caused the mounds so common in this country. The arts, sciences and civilization were brought into view in order to account for all the curious antiquities found in various parts of North and South America. I have recently read the Book of Mormon, and, to my great surprise, I find NEARLY ALL THE SAME HISTORICAL MATTER, NAMES, ETC., as they were in my brother's writings. I well remember that he wrote in the old style and commenced about every sentence with 'AND IT CAME TO PASS,' or 'NOW IT CAME TO PASS,' the SAME AS IN THE BOOK OF MORMON, and, according to my best recollection and belief, it is the same as my brother Solomon wrote, with the exception of the religious matter. By what means it has fallen into the hands of Joseph Smith, Jr., I am unable to determine.
    JOHN SPAULDING."       

    Our next witness is Martha Spaulding, wife of John Spaulding. She says:

    "I was personally acquainted with Solomon Spaulding about twenty years ago. I was at his house a short time before he left Conneaut; he was then writing a historical novel, founded upon the first settlers of America. He represented them as an enlightened and warlike people. He had for many years contended that the aborigines of America were the descendants of some of the lost tribes of Israel, and this idea he carried out in the book in question. The lapse of time which has intervened prevents my recollecting but few of the leading incidents of his writings; but the names of NEPHI and LEHI are yet fresh in my memory as being the principal heroes of his tale. They were officers of the company which first came off from Jerusalem. He gave a particular account of their journey by land and sea till they arrived in America, after which disputes arose between the chiefs which caused them to separate into different bands, one of which was called Lamanites and the other Nephites. Between these were recounted tremendous battles, which frequently covered the ground with the slain; and their being buried in large heaps was the cause of the numerous mounds in the country. Some of these people he represented as being very large. I have read the Book of Mormon, which has brought fresh to my recollection the writings of Solomon Spaulding, and I have no manner of doubt that



    the historical part of it is the same that I read and heard read more than twenty years ago. The old, obsolete style and the phrases of 'and it came to pass,' etc., are the same."
    "MARTHA SPAULDING."        

    Our third witness is Henry Lake, Spaulding's business partner at Conneaut. He says:

    He (Spaulding) very frequently read to me from a manuscript which he was writing, which he entitled the "Manuscript Found," and which he represented as being found in this town. I spent many hours in hearing him read said writings, and became well acquainted with its contents. He wished me to assist him in getting his production printed, alleging that a book of that kind would meet with a rapid sale. I designed doing so, but the forge not meeting our anticipations, we failed in business, when I declined having anything to do with the publication of the book. This book represented the American Indians as the descendants of the lost tribes, gave an account of their leaving Jerusalem, their contentions and wars, which were many and great. One time, when he was reading to me the tragic account of Laban, I pointed out to him what I considered an inconsistency, which he promised to correct, but by referring to the Book of Mormon I find, to my surprise, that it stands there just as he read it to me then. Some months ago I borrowed the Golden Bible, put it into my pocked, carried it home, and thought no more about it. About a week after my wife found the book in my coat pocket as it hung up, and commenced reading it aloud as I lay upon the bed. She had not read twenty minutes when I was astonished to find the same passages in it that Spaulding had read to me more than twenty years before from his 'Manuscript Found.' Since that I have more carefully examined the said Golden Bible, and have no hesitation in saying that the historical part of it is principally, if not wholly, taken from the 'Manuscript Found.' I well recollect telling Mr. Spaulding that the so frequent use of the words, 'And it came to pass,' 'Now it came to pass,' rendered it ridiculous."

    Our fourth witness is John N. Miller, who was employed by Spaulding & Lake at Conneaut and boarded at the former's home. Miller says:

    He (Spaulding) had written two or three books or pamphlets on different subjects, but that which more particularly drew my attention was the one which he called the 'Manuscript Found.' From this he would frequently read some



    humorous passages to the company present. It purported to be the history of the first settlement of America before discovered by Columbus. He brought them off from Jerusalem under their leaders, detailing their travels by land and water, their manners, customs, laws, wars, etc. He said that he designed it as a historical novel, and that in after years it would be believed by many people as much as the history of England. He soon after failed in business, and told me he would retire from the din of his creditors, finish his book, and have it published, which would enable him to pay his debts and support his family. He soon after removed to Pittsburg, as I understood. I have recently examined the Book of Mormon, and find in it the writings of Solomon Spaulding from beginning to end, but mixed up with Scripture and other religious matters which I did not meet with in the 'Manuscript Found.' Many of the passages in the Mormon book are verbatim from Spaulding, and others in part. The names of NEPHI, LEHI, MORONI, and, in fact, all the principal names are brought fresh to my recollection by the Golden Bible. When Spaulding divested his history of its fabulous names by a verbal explanation, he landed his people near the Straits of Darien, which I am very confident he called Zarahemla; they were marched about that country for a length of time in which wars and great bloodshed ensued. He brought them across North America in a north-east direction."
    "JOHN N. MILLER."          

    Our fifth witness is Aaron Wright, who says:

    "I first became acquainted with Solomon Spaulding in 1808 or 1809, when he commenced building a forge on Conneaut Creek. When at his house one day, he showed and read to me a history he was writing of the lost tribes of Israel, purporting that they were the first settlers of America, and that the Indians were their descendants. Upon this subject we had frequent conversations. He traced their journey from Jerusalem to America as it is given in the Book of Mormon, excepting the religious matter. The historical part of the Book of Mormon I know to be the same as I read and heard read from the writings of Spaulding more than twenty years ago; the names are especially the same, without any alteration. He told me his object was to account for all the fortifications, etc., to be found in this country, and said that in time it would be fully believed by all except learned men and historians. I once anticipated reading his writings in print, but



    little expected to see them in a new Bible. Spaulding HAD MANY OTHER MANUSCRIPTS which I expect to see when Smith translates his other plate[s]. In conclusion I will observe that the names of, and most of the historical part of the Book of Mormon, were as familiar to me before I read it as most modern history. If it is not Spaulding's writing, it is the same as he wrote; and if Smith was inspired, I think it was by the same spirit that Spaulding was, which he confessed to be the love of money."
    "AARON WRIGHT."          

    Our sixth witness is Oliver Smith, who testifies:

    "When Solomon Spaulding first came to this place (Conneaut), he purchased a tract of land, surveyed it out, and commenced selling it. While engaged in this business he boarded at my house, in all nearly six months. All his leisure hours were occupied in writing a historical novel founded upon the first settlers of this county. He said he intended to trace their journey from Jerusalem, by land and sea, till their arrival in America, and give an account of their arts, sciences, civilization, wars and contentions. In this way he would give a satisfactory account of all the old mounds so common to this county. During the time he was at my house I read and heard read one hundred pages or more. Nephi and Lehi were by him represented as leading characters when they first started for America. Their main object was to escape the judgments which they supposed were coming upon the old world. But no religious matter was introduced, as I now recollect * * * * * When I heard the historical part of it related, I at once said it was the writings of Solomon Spaulding. Soon after I obtained the book, and on reading it, found much of it the same as Spaulding had written more than twenty years before.
    OLIVER SMITH."          

    Our seventh witness, Nahum Howard, avers this:

    "I first became acquainted with Solomon Spaulding in December, 1810. After that time I frequently saw him at his house, and also at my house. I once, in conversation with him, expressed a surprise at not having any account of the inhabitants once in this country, who erected the old forts, mounds, etc. He then told me that he was writing a history of that race of people, and afterwards frequently showed me his writings, which I read. I have lately read the Book of Mormon, and believe it to be the same as



    Spaulding wrote, except the religious part. He told me that he intended to get his writings published in Pittsburg, and he thought that in one century from that time it would be believed as much as any other history.
    NAHUM HOWARD."          

    Our eighth witness is Artemas Cunningham, whose evidence reads thus:

    In the month of October, 1811, I went from the township of Madison to Conneaut, for the purpose of securing a debt due me from Solomon Spaulding. I tarried with him nearly two days for the purpose of accomplishing my object, which I was finally unable to do. I found him destitute of the means of paying his debts. His only hope of ever paying his debts appeared to be upon the sale of a book which he had been writing. He endeavored to convince me from the nature and character of the work that it would meet with a ready sale. Before showing me his manuscripts, he went into a verbal relation of its outlines, saying that it was a fabulous or romantic history of the first settlement of this country, and as it purported to have been a record found buried in the earth, or in a cave, he had adopted the ancient or scripture style of writing. He then presented his manuscripts, when we sat down and spent a good share of the night in reading them and conversing upon them. I well remember the name of Nephi, which appeared to be the principal hero of the story. The frequent repetition of the phrase 'I, Nephi,' I recollect as distinctly as though it was but yesterday, although the general features of the story have passed from my memory through the lapse of twenty-two years. He attempted to account for the numerous antiquities which are found upon this continent, and remarked that after this generation had passed away, his account of the first inhabitants of America would be considered as authentic as any other history. The Mormon Bible I have partially examined and am fully of the opinion that Solomon Spaulding had written its outlines before he left Conneaut." (148)  

    After the publication of the foregoing evidence (1834) "Apostle" Orson Hyde went to Conneaut, evidently to secure impeaching or contradicting testimony. He received so little comfort that not even a public mention of the trip was made by him until 1841, while he was in London. (149)

    Our ninth witness upon the facts showing the plagiarism of the Book of Mormon from the Spaulding manuscript is Mr.

    (148) This ends the evidence taken from Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, Chapter 19.
    (149) "The Spaulding Story Examined and Exposed, by Page. Page



    Joseph Miller. He was intimately acquainted with Solomon Spaulding during all of the time while the latter resided at Amity, Pa., (1814-16).(150) Mr. Miller's testimony is preserved in the Pittsburg Telegraph February 6, 1879, from which the following is pertinent:

    "On hearing read the account from the book (of Mormon) of the battle between the Amlicites and the Nephites (Book of Alma, Chapter 1 -- Chapter 3, Edition of '88), in which the soldiers of one army had placed a red mark on their foreheads to distinguish them from their enemies, it seems to reproduce in my mind, not only the narration, but the very words, as they had been impressed upon my mind by the reading of Spaulding's manuscript." 

    Our tenth witness is Redick McKee, whose evidence upon another point we have already used. Under date of Washington, D. C., April 14, 1869, published in the Washington (Pa.) Reporter for April 21, 1869, he says:

    "In the fall of 1814 I arrived in the village of 'Good Will,' and for eighteen or twenty months sold goods in the store previously occupied by Mr. Thos. Brice. It was on Main street, a few doors west of Spaulding's Tavern, where I was a boarder. With both Mr. Solomon Spaulding and his wife I was quite intimately acquainted. I recollect quite well Mr. Spaulding spending much time in writing (on sheets of paper torn out of an old book) what purported to be a veritable history of the nations or tribes who inhabited Canaan. He called it 'Lost History Found,' 'Lost Manuscript,' or some such name, not disguising that it was wholly a work of the imagination, written to amuse himself and without any immediate view to publication. I was struck with the minuteness of his details and the apparent truthfulness and sincerity of the author. I have an indistinct recollection of the passage referred to by Mr. Miller about the Amlicites making a cross with red paint on their foreheads to distinguish them from enemies in the confusion of battle."  

    The eleventh witness is the Rev. Abner Jackson, who, when but a boy and confined with a lame knee, heard Solomon Spaulding read to his father much of the former's story, and also heard him give an outline of the whole. Mr. Jackson, under date of December 20, 1880, made the following statement to the Washington County (Pa.) Reporter of January 7, 1881: (151)

    (150) Who Wrote the Book of Mormon, 6.
    (151) See also Who Wrote the Book of Mormon, 6-7.



    "Spaulding frequently read his manuscript to the neighbors and amused them as he progressed with the work. He wrote it in Bible style. 'And it came to pass' occurred so often that some called him 'Old Come-to-pass.' The Book of Mormon follows the romance too closely to be a stranger. In both, many persons appear having the same name, as Moroni, Mormon, Nephites, Laman, Lamanites, Nephi, and others. Here we are presented with romance second called the Book of Mormon, telling the same story of the same people, traveling from the same plain, in the same way, having the same difficulties and destination, with the same wars, same battles, and same results, with thousands upon thousands slain. Then see the Mormon account of the last battle at Cumorah, where all the righteous were slain. How much this resembles the closing scene in the 'Manuscript Found.' The most singular part of the whole matter is that it follows the romance so closely, with this difference: The first claims to be a romance, the second claims to be a revelation of God, a new Bible. When it was brought to Conneaut and read there in public, old Squire Wright heard it and exclaimed, 'Old-Come-to-pass has come to life again.' Here was the place where Spaulding wrote and read his manuscript to the neighbors for their amusement, and Squire Wright had often heard him read from his romance. This was in 1832, sixteen years after Spaulding's death. This Squire Wright lived on a little farm just outside of the little village. I was acquainted with him for twenty-five years. I lived on his farm when I was a boy and attended school in his village. I am particular to notice these things to show that I had an opportunity of knowing what I am writing about." 

    Squire Wright, referred to in Mr. Jackson's statement, is the same Aaron Wright who was our fifth witness upon the question of identity.

    Last, but not least, we introduce John C. Bennett. He says he joined the Mormons in order to enable himself to expose their iniquity. He was quartermaster general of Illinois, the mayor of Nauvoo, a master in chancery for Hancock County, Ill., appointed by then Judge Stephen A. Douglas, a trustee for the "University of the City of Nauvoo," the recipient of special mention in revelation purporting to come direct from God, as well as innumerable encomiums from church leaders and the church organ. The Mormon people have called Bennett more kinds of a liar, it seems to me, than any man was ever



    called before. When Mormons are asked just what statement of Bennett's warrants the charge, they usually confess they never read his book. In the light of subsequent history and later church admissions, there is not one of Bennett's innumerable charges of almost unbelievable iniquity which I cannot demonstrate to be substantially true as to the character of the iniquity, if not the special manifestation of it, and do so wholly from the evidence of Mormon church publications. I, therefore, believe what Bennett says, and here quote so much of his testimony as relates to the origin of the Book of Mormon. He says:

    "I will remark here in confirmation of the above [he having quoted a small part of the statements herein last above quoted] that the Book of Mormon was originally written by the Rev. Solomon Spaulding, A. M., as a romance and entitled the 'Manuscript Found,' and placed by him in the printing office of Patterson and Lambdin, in the city of Pittsburg, from whence it was taken by a CONSPICUOUS MORMON DIVINE and remodeled by adding the religious portion, placed by him in Smith's possession, and then published to the world as the testimony exemplifies. This I have from the confederation, and of its perfect correctness there is not the shadow of a doubt. There never were any plates of the Book of Mormon excepting what were seen by the spiritual and not the natural eyes of the witnesses. The story of the plates is all chimerical." (152) 

    It will be observed Bennett does not name Rigdon or Pratt in his statement. The reason is apparent from reading certain correspondence published in the book from which it appears that at the same time of writing he entertained a reasonable hope that Sidney Rigdon and the Pratts would leave the church and join him in his anti-Mormon crusade, and he probably did not wish to unduly embarrass his supposed confederates, who were still apparently within the fold.


    With the exception of establishing the motive, our case is now complete. The natural inference, of course, is that the greed for gain furnished the dynamics of the scheme, but we must not leave even this fact without direct evidence. Mormons point to the violent death of Smith as a martyrdom, and assume

    (152) Bennett's Mormonism Exposed, 123-4 -- 1842.



    this a sufficient answer to the charge of selfishness. A man who, as was the case with Smith, dies with a six-shooter in his own hand, firing it at his assailants,(156) is in a novel pose for a martyr, and yet we may admit that Smith would not from selfish ends have chosen a career of imposture had he in the beginning been able to foresee his ignominious end.

    Soon after Rigdon's visit to Smith and the reception of the revelation making Kirtland the gathering place of the "Saints," Smith's family, together with their followers, moved to Ohio. Revelations now came thick and fast, and of such a character as to demonstrate that the love of gold, and not God, was the inducing cause of their existence. I quote a few pertinent samples: 

    "Whoso receiveth you receiveth me, and the same will FEED you and CLOTHE you and GIVE YOU MONEY -- and he who doeth not these things is not my disciple." (154)

    "It is wisdom in me that my servant Martin Harris should be an example unto the church IN LAYING HIS MONEY BEFORE THE BISHOP of the church. And also this is a law unto every man that cometh unto this land to receive an inheritance, and he shall do with this money according as the law directs." (155)

    "And let all THE MONIES WHICH CAN BE SPARED, IT MATTERETH NOT unto me whether it be little or much, be sent up unto the land of Zion unto those I have appointed to receive it." (156)

    "And let all those who have not families, who receive MONIES, send it up unto the Bishop of Zion." (157)

    "Behold, this is my will obtaining moneys even as I have directed." (158)

    Impart a portion of thy property; yea, even part of thy lands, and all save the support of thy family." (159)

    "Verily thus saith the Lord, I REQUIRE ALL THEIR SURPLUS PROPERTY to be put into the hands of the bishop of my church of Zion." (160)

    And in temporal labor thou (Smith, the athlete,) shalt not give strength, for this is not thy calling." (161)

    (153) Rise and Fall of Nauvoo, 443.  Bancroft's History of Utah, 179.
    (154) Doctrine and Covenants, 84:89.
    (155) Doctrine and Covenants, 58:35, 36.
    (156) Doctrine and Covenants, 63:40.
    (157) Doctrine and Covenants, 84:104.
    (158) Doctrine and Covenants, 66:45. Supplement 14 Millennial Star, 80.
    (159) Doctrine and Covenants, 10:34.
    (160) Doctrine and Covenants, 119:1.
    (161) Doctrine and Covenants, 24:9.



    THEY SHALL SUPPORT THEE and I will bless them both spiritually and temporally. (162)

    If ye desire the mysteries of the kingdom, PROVIDE FOR HIM (Smith) FOOD AND RAIMENT and whatsoever he needeth to accomplish the work. (163) He who FEEDS you, or CLOTHES you, or gives you MONEY shall in no wise lose his reward. (164) He that SENDETH UP TREASURES unto the land of Zion shall receive an inheritance in this world. (165) I command that thou shall not covet thine own property. (166)

    "Your money or your damnation" has about as much ethical sanction as the less pretentious demand of the highwayman who says, "Your money or your life." But we have not yet reached the end. The "Prophet's" father, who, prior to the discovery of the alleged divine mission of his son, eked out only a scanty living as a dispenser of cake and root beer (167), now became the dispenser of patriarchal blessings at ten dollars per week and expenses, (168) and later at three dollars per bless. (169)

    The Prophet's brothers and friends received a gift of real estate by revelation, (170) and another brother of the Prophet was retained in a holy office, though confessedly concealing his property to cheat his creditors. (171) 

    These are a part and by no means all of the evidence tending to establish that a desire for money was the inspiring cause of every act of the Mormon Prophet, the very divinity that moulded his thoughts and revelations, and brought into being Mormon's books. Before becoming a Prophet, Joseph Smith's earning capacity as a peep-stone money digger was $14 per month.(172) Soon after becoming a Prophet he became president of a bank. (173) In 1842 the Prophet (together with his brother Hyrum and Sidney Rigdon) took advantage of the bankruptcy law to avoid creditors, whose claims amounted to one hundred thousand dollars. (174) A few years later the Prophet was killed, he being at the time the richest man in Nauvoo.

    Through the whole story of their lives, if we may believe their alleged revelations to come from on high, God manifests in the conspirators' behalf a greed for earthly prosperity which would disgrace any decent man who should attempt to gratify

    (162) Doctrine and Covenants, 24:3.
    (163) Doctrine and Covenants, 43:13.
    (164) Doctrine and Covenants, 84:90.
    (165) Doctrine and Covenants, 63:48.
    (166) Doctrine and Covenants, 19:26.
    (167) Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, 12.
    (168) 15 Millennial Star, 308.
    (169) Mormon Portraits, 16.
    (170) Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 94.
    (171) 15 Millennial Star, 520.
    (172) 16 Millennial Star, 151.
    (173) Gleanings by the Way, 334.  Sometimes Smith was cashier and Rigdon President.  Prophet of Palmyra, 135.
    (174) 19 Millennial Star, 343. 20 Millennial Star, 106-216-246.  Mormonism and Mormons, 338.



    it at the expense of a like number of poverty-stricken, ignorant unfortunates. [175]

    It is perhaps a work of supererogation, yet I cannot readily resist calling attention to the human side of the conspirators, when they came to fall out, over the division of the spoils. Many, even Brigham Young included, suspected Joseph Smith of misappropriating church money. (176) Brigham, however, had his suspicions allayed, for the Lord actually put money into his trunk. (177) This would, of course, be very convincing evidence that a man might have much money without misappropriating anything, even though a bank established by revelation, (178) should a few months later fail with $150,000 of liabilities and practically no assets, and after only eight months of business. (179) 

    At one time Cowdery, a witness to the divinity of the Book of Mormon, invited suspicion that he was converting more than his share of the spoils, and the following revelation was the result:

    "It is not wisdom in me that he (Cowdery) should be entrusted with the commandments, AND THE MONEYS which he shall carry unto the land of Zion, EXCEPT ONE GO WITH HIM WHO WILL BE TRUE AN FAITHFUL. (180)

    The most forceful incident of this sort, however, occurred as the result of jealousy between Rigdon and Smith, which manifests itself in scores of ways all through their lives. When Rigdon on his visit to the Prophet in New York desires to be proclaimed a translator of remaining plates given by the angel to Smith, and as having the same power as Joseph Smith, the former's ambitions are quietly squelched by a revelation from God to Rigdon, saying: "It is not expedient in me that ye should translate any more until ye shall go to Ohio," (181) but the rest of the plates never were translated. (182)

    When Cowdery and perhaps Rigdon importune their partner in fraud to be elevated to the prophetic office, Smith resists with a revelation in which God is made to say: "No one shall be appointed to receive commandments and revelations in this church, excepting my servant Joseph Smith, Jun." (183) Similar revelations seem to have been necessary more than once. (184)

    Finally the pressure became too hard to bear, and a revelation was procured in which God, in contradiction of his former declarations, one of which is above quoted, appoints Sidney Rigdon

    (176) Deseret News, April 8, 1857, p. 36.
    (177) 2 Journal of Discourses, 128.  7 Deseret News, 115.
    (178) Statement of Warren Parrish, copied in An Exposure of Mormonism, 10. [Livsey, 1840]  Messenger and Advocate, January 1837, copied in Prophet of Palmyra, 134.  Deseret News, December 21, 1864, Vol. 14, p. 94, says "under the direction of the Prophet."
    (179) Statement of Warren Parrish, copied in "An Exposure of Mormonism," 11.
    (180) Doctrine and Covenants, 69:1.
    (181) Doctrine and Covenants, Sec. 37.
    (182) 19 Journal of Discourses, 38-216-218.  Reminiscences of Joseph the Prophet, 14.
    (183) Doctrine and Covenants, 28:2.
    (184) Doctrine and Covenants, 43:3.



    "to receive the oracles for the whole church."(185) And not neglecting the equal rights of the "Prophet's" brother, God declares: "I appoint unto him (Hyrum Smith) that he may be a prophet, and a seer, and a revelator unto my church, as well as my servant Joseph."(186) Both men were accordingly "ordained" each a "prophet, seer, and revelator."(187) Thus are even the Gods made to eat their own words at the behest of the conspirators, who quarrel in their division of the glory and the gold.

    One more incident of this sort will suffice. In February, 1831, Smith received the first of several revelations directing the brethren to provide him a home. In part it reads as follows:

    "It is mete that my servant Joseph Smith, Jun., should have a house built in which to live and translate. And again, it is mete that my servant Sidney Rigdon shall live as seemeth him good, inasmuch as he keepeth my commandments." (188) 

    Of course, living "as seemeth him good" was to Sidney Rigdon hardly a fair equivalent for a house and lot. Had he not made Smith a "prophet, seer, and revelator," and could he not also unmake him? Why, then should Sidney Rigdon submit to any unfair division of the spoils of the prophetic office? He didn't.

    The above revelation was received while Rigdon was absent from Kirtland. Upon his return he went to the meeting-house where an expectant throng awaited him in anticipation of one of his entrancing sermons, but Rigdon failed to go to the speaker's stand, and instead paced back and forth through the house. The "Prophet Joseph" being absent from Kirtland, Father Smith requested Rigdon to speak. In a tone of excitement Rigdon replied (and who will say it was not spoken as by one having authority?): "The keys of the Kingdom are rent from the church, and there shall be no prayer put up in this house this day." "Oh, no; I hope not," gasped Father Smith. "I tell you they are," rejoined "Elder Rigdon." The brethren stared and turned pale, and the sisters in anguish cried aloud for relief. "I tell you again," said Sidney, with much feeling, "the keys of the Kingdom are taken from you, and you never will have them again UNTIL YOU BUILD ME A NEW HOUSE."

    Amid tumultuous excitement of the part of the sisters, "Brother Hyrum" left the meeting to bring "Joseph the Prophet," who was in a neighboring settlement. On their return next day the "brethren" and "sisters" were gathered in anticipation of important happenings. Joseph mounted the rostrum and informed the assembly that they were laboring under a great mistake;

    (185) Doctrine and Covenants, 124:126.
    (186) Doctrine and Covenants, 124:94. 18 Millennial Star, 360.
    (187) 20 Millennial Star, 550 as to Rigdon, and p. 373 as to Hyrum Smith. It is now claimed that Smith had conferred upon all the Apostles "all the Power, Priesthood, and Authority ever conferred upon himself." 1 Journal of Discourses, 206. 19 Journal of Discourses, 124. See also Melchisadic and Aronic Herald, Feb. 1850. 5 Millennial Star, 104, 68 "Semi-Annual Conference," 70.
    (188) Doctrine and Covenants, 41:7 and 8.



    that the church had not transgressed. Speaking of the lost keys, he said: "I myself hold the keys of this last dispensation, and will forever hold them, both in time and in eternity; so set your hearts at rest upon that point; all is right."

    I continue to quote from an account written by the "Prophet's" mother, relating just what they desire the world to believe happened immediately after:

    "He (Joseph Smith) then went on and preached a comforting discourse, after which he appointed a council to sit the next day, by which Sidney Rigdon was tried for HAVING LIED IN THE NAME OF THE LORD. In this council Joseph told him he must suffer for what he had done; that he would be delivered over to the buffetings of Satan, who would handle him as one man handleth another; that the less priesthood he had the better it would be for him, and that it would be well for him to give up his license. This counsel Sidney complied with, yet he had to suffer for his folly, for, according to his own account, he was dragged out of bed by the devil three times in one night, by the heels." Mother Lucy Smith doubtingly adds: "Whether this be true or not, one thing is certain. His contrition of soul was as great as a man could well live through."(189) The last sentence shows beyond dispute that Mother Lucy had her doubts about this silly story she has just narrated, and, of course, we are entitled to similar doubts. 

    What really did happen is made very plain by subsequent occurrences. Smith and Rigdon got together, patched up their differences by an agreement that Rigdon should have a house if he would restore the "keys" to the last dispensation, and desist from executing his threats to smash the "Kingdom," and for the sake of its wholesome influence upon others he must play penitent and humble. As evidence of this conclusion we point to the story of this transaction as quoted above from Mother Lucy's life of the "Prophet," and the two following sections of a revelation announced by Smith under the date of August, 1831:

    "Behold, verily I say unto you, I the Lord am not pleased with my servant Sidney Rigdon. He exalted himself in his heart and received not my counsel, but grieved the Spirit." "Let my servants Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon seek them a house as they are taught through prayer by the Spirit. (190)

    It is needless to add they each received a house, and both stood for many years, and perhaps even to this day, side by side, and both built according to the same plans. (191)


    The case, so far as the production of evidence is concerned, must now be considered closed. The actors in this fraud are all

    (189) Mother Lucy's life of "Joseph Smith the Prophet," 195 and 196. As to Rigdon's declaration that the keys were gone, see also 14 Deseret News, 91, December 21, 1864. As to Rigdon's being dragged out of bed, see also History of the Mormons, 83.
    (190) Doctrine and Covenants, 63:55 and 65.
    (191) Gleanings by the Way, 332.



    dead, and upon the precise question here discussed no new evidence is likely to be discovered. All the evidence directly affecting either side of the question had been introduced and reviewed.

    When, as here, we are investigating a case dependent upon circumstantial evidence, we must judge the evidence as a whole. No one circumstance out of many connected ones ever established the ultimate fact. The converse of this proposition is equally true. You cannot show the insufficiency of the evidence by demonstrating that any one circumstance, if it stood alone, would be equally consistent with some other theory than the one in support of which it is cited. The evidentiary circumstances must be viewed as a whole, each in the light of its relation to all the rest. Thus viewed, the circumstantial evidence is strong just in proportion as the circumstances related to, and consistent with, the theory advocated are numerous. In the argument under consideration the circumstantial facts are so numerous, and gathered from so many disconnected sources, corroborated by so many admissions from the accused conspirators and their defenders, that it is utterly impossible to believe them all to have come into being as a mere matter of accidental concomitance. 

    Let us put the defenders of the divinity of Mormonism to a test on this matter by inviting them to make an equally good case of circumstantial evidence based upon established fact, all tending to show some other human origin for the Book of Mormon than that here advocated. Inability to do so means that such an array of concurring facts cannot be duplicated in support of any other theory than the one here advocated. If, as must now be admitted, the concurrence of so very many facts can best be explained by the conclusions here contended for, then that is a more believable, a more rational conviction than one which of necessity requires belief in an assumed and unprovable miracle. That explanation which takes the least for granted is always the one adopted by the sanest person. Bearing in mind these truths, let us briefly review a portion of the most salient features of the argument.

    From the uncontradicted evidence of witnesses, practically all of whom are disinterested and who in most circumstances of great evidentiary weight are corroborated by authorized church publications, we have established beyond cavil, and I am sure to the satisfaction of all thinking minds untainted by mysticism, and whose vision is unobscured, that the following are thoroughly established facts:

    Solomon Spaulding, between 1812 and 1816, outlined and then re-wrote a novel, attempting therein to account for the American Indian by Israelitish origin. The first outline of this story, now at Oberlin College, had no direct connection with the Book of Mormon, and was never claimed to be connected with it, and such connection was expressly disclaimed as early as 1834.  The rewritten story, entitled "Manuscript Found," was by Spaulding twice left with a publisher, whence it was stolen



    under circumstances which then led Spaulding to suspect Sidney Rigdon, who long after was the first conspicuous convert of Mormonism; that Rigdon, through his great intimacy with the publishers' employees, had opportunity to steal it, and that after Spaulding's death, and years before the advent of Mormonism, Rigdon had in his possession such a manuscript and exhibited it, with the statement that it was Spaulding's.  Through Parley P. Pratt, Rigdon and Smith were brought into relation, and the latter made the Prophet of the "Dispensation of the Fullness of Times," the discoverer, translator, and, according to his own designation, the "Author and Proprietor" (192) of the Book of Mormon. This connection is established by the most convincing circumstantial evidence, taken wholly from authorized Mormon publications; it is shown that Rigdon foreknew the coming and in a general way the contents of the Book of Mormon; that both Rigdon and Pratt were, according to some of their contradictory accounts, converted to Mormonism with such miraculous suddenness and without substantial investigation that when this, coupled with the contradictory accounts of these important events and their attempts at concealing the suddenness of their conversion, all compel a conviction of their participation in a scheme of religious fraud. 

    Upon the question of plagiarism, we may profitably add a brief summary of the points of identity between the peculiar features shown to be common to Spaulding's novel and the Book of Mormon. In Spaulding's first outline of the story it pretended to be ancient American history, attempting to explain the origin of part of the aborigines of this continent, all translated from ancient writings found in a stone box. It recounts the wars of extermination of two factions, tells of the collecting of armies and of slaughters which were a physical impossibility to those uncivilized people who were without any modern methods of transporting troops or army supplies. After two revisions, one by Spaulding and a second by Smith, Rigdon & Co., the above general outline still describes equally well the Book of Mormon.

    Leaving the first blocking-out of his novel unfinished, Spaulding resolved to change his plot by dating the story farther back and by attempting to imitate the Old Scripture style, so as to make it seem more ancient. Spaulding's determination to date his novel farther back probably suggested changing the roll of parchment which, according to the Oberlin manuscript was found in a stone box, to golden plates. Some time before 1820 some one pretended to have found a Golden Bible in Canada. (193) If Spaulding, in re-writing the story, did not make the change, this incident may have suggested such a change to Smith and his fellow-frauds.

    (192) Smith designates himself as the "Author and Proprietor" of God's word, in the Title Page of the Book of Mormon, also in the testimony of the witnesses as it appears in the first edition, since which time both have been altered. See also Evening and Morning Star, 177.

    (193) Braden-Kelly Debate, 55.



    Spaulding, in his attempt at imitating Bible phraseology, had repeated so ridiculously often the words "it came to pass," that both in Ohio and Pennsylvania the neighbors to whom he read his manuscript nicknamed him "Old Come-to-pass." In the Book of Mormon, though professedly an abridgement, the same phrase is uselessly repeated several thousands times, and a bungling effort at imitating the style of Bible writers is apparent all through it.

    Spaulding's existence was contemporaneous with Anti-Masonic riots, and he harbored a sentiment against all secret societies,(193) which has also been carried through into the Book of Mormon.

    The uncontradicted and unimpeached evidence of many witnesses is explicit that the historical portions of both the "Manuscript Found" and the "Book of Mormon" are the same, and much of the religious matter interpolated is in the exact phraseology of King James's translation of the Bible. We find also many names of places, persons, and tribes to be identical in the "Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon. Some of the names were taken from the Bible, others would be known only to the students of American antiquities, among whom was Spaulding, and still others were unheard of until coined by Spaulding. The names proven to be common to both are Nephi, Lehi, Mormon, Nephites, Lamanites, Laban, Zarahemla and Amlicites. 

    Add to this the very novel circumstance that in both accounts one of two contending armies placed upon the forehead of its soldiers a red mark that they might distinguish friends from enemies, and the new and characteristic features common to both are too numerous to admit of any explanation except that herein contended for, viz: That the Book of Mormon is a plagiarism from Spaulding's novel, the "Manuscript Found," and is the product of conscious fraud on the part of Sidney Rigdon, Parley Parker Pratt, Joseph Smith, and others, which fraud was prompted wholly by a love of notoriety and money.

    I agree with what Mormons insinuate that a profession of belief or disbelief in the divinity of the Book of Mormon is wholly a question of mental capacity or incapacity, and of intellectual honesty or dishonesty. I now invite a re-reading of the extracts from the Mormon church organ quoted upon the cover of this pamphlet, in the utmost confidence that I have demonstrated that not all the "densely ignorant," nor "unscrupulously dishonest," nor totally depraved" are outside the "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints."

    (194) Howe's Mormonism Unveiled. 288.


    Additional footnotes:
    As added to the 1906-1907 reprinting of Schroeder's text in American Historical Magazine.

    (0a) Valuable contributions to this study are Lamb's "Golden Bible" and a pamphlet by Lamoni Call classifying two thousand corrections in the inspired grammar of the first edition of the Book of Mormon.  go back  
    (0b) The best effort along this line is Riley's "The Founder of Mormonism." To me the conclusions are very unsatisfactory, because so many material considerations were overlooked by that author.   go back
    (2b) The discovery of the manuscript written by Mr. Spaulding, and its deposit in the library at Oberlin College, O.,... has so completely demolished the theory once relied upon by superficial minds that the Book of Mormon was concocted from that manuscript, that it has been entirely abandoned by all opponents of Mormonism except the densely ignorant or unscrupulously dishonest. And this on May 14, 1901:
    blockquote> It is only the densely ignorant, the totally depraved, and clergymen of different denominations afflicted with anti-Mormon rabies, who still use the Spaulding story to account for the origin of the Book of Mormon.  go back   (37b) ii. "Journal of Discourses," 197.  go back


    (c. 1960 Rev. McGimsey tract)

    [ 1 ]

    BOOK  of  MORMON.


    "Solomon Spaulding, between 1812 and 1816, outlined and then rewrote a novel, attempting therein to account for the American Indian by Israelitish origin. The first outline of this story, now at Oberlin College, had no direct connection with the Book of Mormon, and was never claimed to be connected with it, and such connection was expressly disclaimed as early as 1834. The rewritten story, entitled "Manuscript Found" was by Spaulding twice left with a publisher, whence it was stolen under circumstances which then led Spaulding to suspect Sidney Rigdon, who long after was the first conspicuous convert of Mormonism; that Rigdon through his great intimacy with the publisher's employees, had opportunity to steal it, and that after Spaulding's death, and years before the advent of Mormonism, Rigdon had in his possession such manuscript and exhibited it, with the statement that it was Spaulding's. Through Parley P. Pratt, Rigdon and Smith were brought into relation and the latter made the Prophet of the "Dispensation of the Fulness of Times," the discoverer, translator and, according to his own designation, the "Author and Proprietor" of the Book of Mormon. This connection is established by the most convincing circumstantial evidence, taken wholly from authorized Mormon publications. It is shown that Rigdon foreknew the coming and, in a general way, the contents of the Book of Mormon; that both Rigdon and Pratt were, according to some of their contradictory accounts, converted. to Mormonism with such miraculous suddenness and without substantial


    [ 2 ]

    investigation that this, coupled with the contradictory accounts of these important events and their attempts at concealing the suddenness of their conversion, all compel a conviction of their participation in a scheme of religious fraud.

    Upon the question of plagiarism, we may profitably add a brief summary of the points of identity between the peculiar features shown to be common to Spaulding's novel and the Book of Mormon. In Spaulding's first outline of the story it pretended to be ancient African [sic, American?] history, attempting to explain the origin of part of the inhabitants of this continent, all translated from ancient writings found in a stone box. It recounts the wars of extermination of two factions, tells of the collecting of armies, and the slaughters which were a physical impossibility to those uncivilized people, who were without any modern methods of warfare, transporting troops or army supplies. After two revisions, one by Spaulding and the second by Smith, Rigdon & Co., the above general outline still describes equally well the Book of Mormon.

    Leaving the first blocking out of this novel unfinished, Spaulding resolved to change his plot by dating the story further back and by attempting to imitate the Old Scripture Style, so as to make it seem more ancient. Spaulding's determination to date his novel further back probably suggested changing the roll of parchment to golden plates which, according to the Oberlin manuscript was found in a stone box. Sometime before 1820 some one pretended to have found a golden Bible in Canada. If Spaulding, in rewriting the story, did not make this change, this incident may have suggested such change to Smith and his fellow-frauds.

    Spaulding, in his attempt at imitating Bible phraseology, had repeated so ridiculously often the words, "it came to pass" that both in Ohio and Pennsylvania the neighbors to whom he read his manuscript nicknamed him "Old come to-pass." In the Book of Mormon


    [ 3 ]

    though professedly an Abridgement, the phrase occurs hundreds of times and a bungling attempt at imitating the style of Bible writers is apparent all through it.

    The uncontradicted and unimpeached evidence of many witnesses is explicit that the historical portions of both the "Manuscript Found" and the "Book of Mormon" are the same, and much of the religious matter interpolated is in the exact phraseology of the King James translation of the Bible. Thirteen Chapters of Isaiah in one place alone. See II Nephi Chapters 12 through Chapter 24. And this from the King James translation of 1611 A.D. while the Book of Mormon is supposed to cover the period from B.C. 600 to A.D. 421. We find also many names of places, persons and tribes to be identical in the 'Manuscript Found" and the Book of Mormon. Some of the names were taken from the Bible; others would be known only to the students of American antiquities, among them was Spaulding, and still others were unheard of until coined by Spaulding. The names proven to be common to both are Nephi, Lehi, Mormon, Nephites, Lamanites, Zarahemla and Amlicites.

    Add to this the very novel circumstances that in both accounts one of the two contending armies placed upon the forehead of its soldiers a red mark that they might distinguish friends from enemies, and the new characteristic features are too numerous to admit of any explanation except that herein contended for, viz That the Book of Mormon is a plagiarism from Spaulding's novel, the "Manuscript Found," and is the product of conscious fraud on the part of Sidney Rigdon, Parley Parker Pratt, Joseph Smith and others, which fraud was prompted wholly by a love of notoriety and money.'

    Note -- This article was prepared by Mr. A. T. Schroeder, a lawyer of Salt Lake City, Utah, and published by the Salt Lake Ministerial Association a number of years ago. After much research work carried on all over our country on the origin of the Book of Mormon,


    [ 4 ]

    we can truthfully say that Mr. Schoeder's article on the origin of the Book of Mormon is the absolute truth. The whole of Mormonism (both Utah and Reorganized and the other factions) are under the judgment of God for adding to and taking away from the Holy Bible -- God's ONLY Book. God's solemn warning to those that have accepted the Book of Mormon as part of His Word and are therefore bound with the chains of Mormonism is as follows "For l testify unto every man that heareth the words of the prophecy of this Book (the Holy Bible), If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this Book (the Holy Bible) And if any man shall take away from the words of the Book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part out of the Book of Life, and out of the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book." Revelation 22 18-19.

    Reader, if you are a Mormon, or any other unsaved person, believe the following message from the Holy Bible -- God's Only Book -- which is for you "For there is no difference. For all have sinned. Romans 3:22-23. The wages of sin is death. Romans 6:23. The wicked shall be turned into Hell. Psalm 9:17. Christ died for our sins, was buried, and rose again I Corinthians 15:3-4. Without shedding of blood is no remission. Hebrews 9:22. The blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. I John 1:7. The coming of the Lord drawth nigh. James 5 8. Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved. The Acts 16 31. Receive with meekness the engrafted word, which is able to save your souls." James 1:21.

    Evangelist Harry A. McGimsey
    Post Office Box 415
    San Bernardino, California
    Tracts Free as God Supplies the Need


    1901 Schroeder Rarity

    This is a rare variant of Theodore A. Schroeder's 1901 The Origin of the Book of Mormon. The content of the interior pages of this complimentary copy is identical to the primary edition. A notice on the front cover reads: "With Compliments of Albert Theodore Schroeder, of the Salt Lake City Bar." The copies bound in this cover lacked the "price: 10 cents" line found on covers from the main press run. Schroeder sent these complimentary printings to a number of libraries and prominent people. An example is preserved in the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh, with this printed information pasted inside the front cover:

    "Produces evidence to prove that the Book of Mormon is a plagiarism, its distinguishing features being indentical with those of a romance entitled "The manuscript found." This romance was written by Solomon Spaulding, and while in the keeping of a prospective publisher, Robert Patterson of Pittsburgh, was stolen by one Sidney Rigdon, of early Mormon fame. It is asserted that Rigdon then showed Joseph Smith the stolen manuscript, and from it the Book of Mormon was compiled. For further evidence see Samuel Williams' "Mormonism exposed... and Robert Patterson's "Who wrote the Book of Mormon..."


    Walter Franklin Prince
    A. Theodore Schroeder
    Articles re: Book of Mormon,
    American Journal of Psychology 1917-19
  • July 1917 article (W. F. Prince)
  • Jan. 1919 article (A. T. Schroeder)
  • July 1919 note (W. F. Prince)

  • Transcriber's Comments




        Founded by G. Stanley Hall in 1887.
    VOL. XXVIII.                                   JULY, 1917                                   No. 3

      [pg. 373]



    The application of rigorous psychological tests to the mind of a man long since dead has its interest, and if thereby light is thrown upon a question of perennial debate, it achieves practical importance. The man to whom such tests will be here applied is Joseph Smith, the founder of Mormonism, who was killed in 1844, and the question which will be illuminated is that of the authorship of the Book of Mormon. There are three theories as to the origin of that book.

    (1) It is a translation of the gist of records made by a succession of scribes of peoples anciently inhabiting America. This is the belief of several hundred thousand persons who find the book the chief distinctive source of their religion. Since the odd contents of the volume lamentably or ludicrously fall before every canon of historical criticism, scholars have not thought it worth while to discuss the notion of its ancient authorship, unless briefly for pragmatic and missionary purposes.

    (2) It was in the main written by Rev. Solomon Spaulding, who died in 1816, as a romance, but some religious matter was added by Joseph Smith, solely or with the assistance of Sidney Rigdon. This has been the prevailing view outside the ranks of its religious devotees, since about 1830.

    (3) It was solely or essentially the work of Joseph Smith himself. This is maintained by a few scholars, mostly within the last 15 years. Prolonged analysis and comparison by the present writer make it incredible that Spaulding had any connection with the book, doubtful that Rigdon was implicated, certain that Joseph Smith's hand is perceptible in every part, and probably that he was the sole author, the edifice of whose imagination echoed to reminiscences which he was far from recognizing.

    Three propositions may firmly be laid down, the evidence for which has never adequately been set forth, and, except for a part of that under the third head, finds no place here.

    (A) If there were no knowledge of Joseph Smith whatever,

    374                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    or of the date when the Book of Mormon was copyrighted, it would nevertheless appear, from the numerous reflections of the times which it: contains, that it was written somewhere between 1820 and 1834. Many passages certainly could not antedate 1826. With what we know about Smith and the copyrighting of the book, we are able to narrow down to the period between 1826 and 1829, with emphasis upon the year 1827. (Spaulding died in 1816.).

    (B) If there were no knowledge of Smith, it would yet be most probable that the author lived in western New York. (Smith did, but Spaulding and Rigdon did not.)

    (C) Having in possession our meager knowledge of Joseph Smith's early career, and of his mental traits, all the assignable data in the Book of Mormon point to him and him alone as the author. For example, several of the dreams and visions contained in the book are incontestably slightly altered versions of dreams experienced by his father, which we find guilelessly related long after the [prophet's death, in his mother's reminiscences. 1

    The tests which we are to apply are concerned mainly with the proper names in the Book of Mormon. The principle upon which they rest is found in the influence which memory-and-emotion complexes exert upon the invention of combinations of consonantal and vowel sounds. If a man is spinning a tale of fiction and manufacturing therefor quaint personal and geographical names, it is not the case that one combination of sounds will enjoy an equal chance with another of emerging in his consciousness. On the contrary, a combination resembling what may be called a master-word associated with some oft-repeated or strongly emotional experience of his past life will be much more likely to offer itself to his mind than any combination not so associated. For instance, if he has formerly been bitterly injured by a woman named Caroline, or else fondly loved one of that name, so that it is deeply imbedded in his memory and invested with strong feeling, it is many more times as likely that a combination beginning with "Car" will present itself to his mental view than that the immune syllable bar, dar, or far, etc., will do so.

    1 After tracing these passages in the Book of Mormon to their unmistakable archetypes in Lucy Smith's story, I found that this had already been in part done by I. Woodbridge Riley, in his excellent "Founder of Mormonism," printed in 1902. An honest elder of the Reorganized Mormon Church, to whom the "deadly parallels" were pointed out, could not deny that they existed, but suggested that the elder Smith might have had dreams prophetically forestalling the discovery and translation of the "Golden Plates!"

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  375

    In fact, the whole name, "Caroline" will tend to suggest itself. But then, if the authorship of the fiction, or the fact that it is fiction, is to he concealed, the too tell-tale word, emerging into the upper consciousness, will be rejected. But if it comes up, as it will then tend to do, in an altered and disguised form, as Carlin, or Carowin, and is not recognized, it is likely to please the unwary consciousness, as by a thrill, and be accepted. 2 If the inventor of names is of a strongly emotional and imaginative type, and especially if he approach the abnormal in this respect, the tendency will be pronounced. Since it is certain at least that Joseph Smith was responsible for the incorporation of his father's dreams into the Book of Mormon, it is not premature to remark that he was thus characterized. 3 At any rate, the author of that book was, as will he shown, demonstrably subject to the tendency, which will betray, as we proceed, first that he probably lived, like Joseph Smith, in western New York, secondly that he invented many of the names within three or four years before Joseph Smith offered the book for copyrighting, and thirdly that he was either Joseph Smith himself or a man many of whose personal antecedents and relationships duplicated those of Joseph Smith to a degree unheard-of and incredible.

    Entering upon our thesis, it is first necessary to set forth one of many reflections in the Book of Mormon of the times in which it was written, since the emotional accompaniment in the mind of the author furnished the soil out of which a throng of the invented proper names grew. I refer to the Anti-Masonic excitement which began with the abduction of William Morgan in 1826. This man had announced that he was about to publish a full account of the secret rites and alleged tendencies of Masonry, and having been arrested in Batavia, New York, on a charge of theft, was taken to Canandaigua and there acquitted, rearrested for debt and lodged in jail, and thence taken to the Canada line where all traces of him finally disappeared. The agents in these acts appear to have been Masons. The popular excitement roused, beginning in western New York, was prodigious, The feeling first in

    2 If the fiction, arid consequently the names, should be a semi-conscious or subconscious and automatic construction, as may very possibly have been the case with the Book of Mormon, the mechanism involved would not be dissimilar to that stated. The associational and emotional processes would still govern, and identical names which would constitute a "give-away" would be rejected by the inner "psychic censor," to adopt a Freudian term, while slightly disguised ones might pass its inspection.

    3 See Riley, "Founder of Mormonism."

    376                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    western New York crystallized into a political movement which spread more or less over the whole country as the Anti-Masonic Party. The movement rapidly subsided, and even in New York the party ceased to be a positive factor in 1833, but feeling still continued to be strong in the western part of the State, where Smith lived. 4 The Morgan pamphlet was printed after his disappearance, and we shall presently see that the writer of the Book of Mormon was familiar with it. 5

    Now in at least twenty-one chapters in seven out of the sixteen "books" of the Book of Mormon are to be found passages, varying from several to sixty-three lines in length, plainly referring to Masonry under the guise of pretended similar organizations in ancient America. The warning of Washington in his Farewell Address, against "combinations . . . with real design to direct, control, counteract or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities" was quoted a thousand times in Anti-Masonic speeches and writings, and accordingly we find the Book of Mormon employing the term "combination" five times in its descriptions of the alleged ancient societies, and "secret combinations" fifteen times. Thrice it boldly names them "secret societies," while "secret works," "secret abominations," "secret plan," "secret signs," "secret band," "secret oath," and "secret words" " are employed ad nauseam. The claim or poetic fiction of the Masons that their order is from very old times is reflected in "which had been handed down from "Cain." 6 They did have their . . . secret signs and their secret words, and this that they might distinguish a brother," 7 has a familiar sound, even to the word " brother." Once the word "craft " 8 is employed in this connection, not only a word in technical use by the Masons but also found on the title-page of the Morgan pamphlet. No charge was

    4 "Life of William Seward" by E. E. Hale, Jr., pp. 69, 71, 104. See also " W. H. Seward" by T. K. Lothrop, pp. 15-16; "Horace Greeley" by James Parton, pp. 101-102; MacMaster's "United States," vol. V; "Roberts' "History of New York," pp. 580-581; contemporary pamphlets and periodicals.

    5 The essential part of the title-page reads thus: "Morgan's Masonry exposed and explained, showing the origin, history and nature of Masonry, its effect upon government and the Christian religion, and containing a key to all the degrees of Masonry intended as a guide to the craft and a light to the unenlightened." By Captain William Morgan

    6 Book of Mormon, Ether 8:15. All references to the B. of M. are to the Utah edition of 1908.

    7 B. of M., Helaman 6:22.

    8 B. of M., Helaman 2:4.

                    AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                 377

    more frequently sounded in the furor of 1826-33 than that the Masons monopolized the offices, and defeated justice in the courts in the interest of their members, and accordingly we read in the Book of Mormon of the secret combinations" "filling the judgment-seats, having usurped the power and authority of the land...letting the wicked go unpunished because of their money, and moreover to be held in office at the hand of government, to rule and do according to their wills, that they might get gain and glory of the world; and moreover that they might the more easy commit adultery, and steal, and kill, according to their own wills." 9 Innumerable papers and pamphlets declared that Masonry was subversive of freedom and popular government (and this is intimated on the title-page of the Morgan pamphlet), and so the supposedly ancient record sagaciously speaks of "this secret combination which shall be among you" and warns that "whosoever buildeth it up seeketh to overthrow the freedom of all lands." 10 As Masonry was charged with being inimical to religion (and this also is intimated on the title-page of the Morgan pamphlet), so we find the replica "They did reject all the words of the prophets, because of their secret society and wicked abominations." 11 But, more pointedly, not only are the general charges against the Masons faithfully impressed upon these many passages of pretended ancient date, but so also is the tragedy of William Morgan. Twenty-eight times, and in almost every passage, are the "secret combinations" coupled with "murder" and "murderers," while the words "kill," "slay" and " blood," with similar implications, are employed. The source of the obsessing idea becomes more patent with the four-fold use of the expression "secret murder," 12 since Morgan was murdered secretly if at all. Even the killing of a Book of Mormon character in "a secret pass" is probably a reflection of the belief that Morgan was drowned in the clandestine passage from the United States to Canada. At any rate, it is impossible to mistake the connection between the belief of the masses that the light sentences of the several men convicted of Morgan's abduction was an insult to justice and the statement in the Book Mormon that lawyer and others connected with the ancient covenants conspired to "deliver those who were

    9 B. of M., Helaman 7:4-5.

    10 B. of M., Ether 8:24-25.

    11 B. of M., Ether 11:22.

    12 Alma 37:22; Helaman 8:4; Helaman 6:29: 3 Nephi 5:5.

    378                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    guilty of murder from the grasp, of justice." 13 And parallels continue. It was charged that Morgan was practically condemned in a secret session of a lodge, and as a matter of course the pretended record declares it the case, in ancient America that "whosoever of those who belonged to their band who should reveal unto the world of their wickedness and their abominations should be tried not by the laws of their country but by the laws of their wickedness." 14 Here is a double parallel, for the illegal condemnation in both cases was for exposing the secrets of the order. But as the modern crime was in vain, since the Morgan pamphlet was published nevertheless, so in the Book of Mormon we hear the exultant cry, "Their secret combinations have been brought out of darkness and made known unto us." 15 To fairly cap the climax, the widow and babies whom Morgan left finds her parallel in the "widows" 16 and "orphans" of the Book of Mormon, made such by "secret combinations" and the fact that the murderers of Morgan (if he was indeed murdered) never were punished, is reflected in the sentence, forming part of a paragraph about the ancient "combinations," "The Lord will not suffer that the blood of his saints (!) which shall be shed by them shall always cry unto him from the ground for vengeance upon them." 17

    And now we plunge into medias res. It: is now sufficiently evident that the author of the Book of Mormon was, at the time he was writing it, powerfully obsessed by the ideas and emotions which characterized that popular movement which, beginning in western New York in 1826, was to subside last in the same region. What word would sink most indelibly into such a consciousness -- what but the name MORGAN itself? Over and over again, as the writer sought a name for a new character or locality, the name Morgan would present itself. But this telltale name would be rejected, by the upper intelligence if the work was conscious fiction, by the "psychic censor" if it was "an automatic product." But when the word came up in a disguised shape, the first syllable "Mor" intact, the letter "m" either elided or substituted, a vowel either the same as the second vowel of the obsessing name or similar to it in common utterance, the identical letter "n" following, with or without additions, an unsophisticated upper intelligence

    13 B. of M., 3 Nephi 6:29.

    14 B. of M., Helaman 6:24.

    15 B. of M., Alma 37:26.

    16 B. of M., Mormon 8:40.

    17 B. of M., Ether 8: 22.

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  379

    or subliminal "psychic censor" would not perceive its betraying quality, and it would be written down. Now in the book which we are inspecting there are not fewer than twenty-five words which begin with the syllable "Mor," and every one of them is presently followed by the letter "m" with either the identical vowel "a" preceding it, or the vowel " o" (and in popular speech the pronunciation of o in Mormon and of n in Morgan, are practically identical, being quite or nearly equivalent to the short sound of u). Also, precisely as "Morgan" is the masterword of the particular ideational and emotional complex of which we have been speaking, so Mormon, one of the reflected names, is the chief character of the composition, while "Mormon" is also the name of the composition as a whole. The entire list follows.

    MORmoN  (Lamanite king)
    MORmoN  (son of the above)
    MORmoN  (Nephite prophet)
    MORmoN  (name of entire book)
    MORmoN  (division in Book of Mormon)
    MORmoN  (name of a forest)
    MORmoN  (land of)
    MORmoN  (place)
    MORmoN  (body of water)
    MORmoN, Words of  (division in Book of Mormon)
    MORoN  (Jaredite king)
    MORoN  (larid of)

    MORoNi  (Nephite prophet)
    MORoNi  (last Ncphite)
    MORoNi  (division of Book of Mormon)
    MORoNi  (city)
    MORoNi  (land of)
    MORoNihah  (Nephite general)
    MORoNihah  (another Nephite general)
    MORoNihah  (city)
    MORiaNton  (founder of city)
    MORiaNton  (Jaredite king)
    MORiaNton  (land of)
    MORiaNton  (land of)
    MORiaNtom  (land uf)
    MORiaNcumr (place)

    Now, while the fact that out of the 40 proper names in the Book of Mormon having the initial letter M, 25 begin with the syllable Mor, and the fact that every one of these 25 further contains or approximates the final two letters of the obsessing name "Morgan," are impressive, it is not expected that they will be convincing by themselves. The demonstration is but begun. And right here we add that there are at least two other reflections from the same name (making a sum of 27), namely:

    AmMORoN (Nephite apostate), and aMORoN (Nephite officer). 18

    For some time I stupidly wondered why the writer made

    18 It is worth considering whether the wraith of Morgan, appearing in Ammoron, has not brought along with it the echo of the last syllable of William, Compare

    williAMMORgaN and

    380                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    so many of his proper names begin with the syllables "Anti," suspiciously identical with the Latin prefix. But suddenly it dawned upon me. What word connected with the excitement of 1826-33, rivalled "Morgan" as a tocsin-call to the emotions? Manifestly, "ANTI-MASONIC," the name of the political party which Morgan's abduction roused into being. Consequently, we find the distinct reflex of the prefix in 14 proper names of the Book of Mormon.

    ANTInephilehi  (a people)
    ANTInephilehi  (Lamanite king)
    ANTIomno  (Lamanite king)
    ANTIonah  (a ruler)
    ANTIonum  (Nephite general)
    ANTIonum  (land of)
    ANTIparah  (city)

    ANTIpas  (mountain)
    ANTIpus  (Nephite commander)
    aniANTI  (village)
    mANT  (person)
    mANTI  (city)
    mANTI  (land of)
    mANTI  (hill)

    The obsessing prefix clamored incessantly for deliverance and achieved it, but not perfectly, in 14 other instances:

    archeANTus  (Nephite officer)
    coriANTon  (son of Alma)
    coriANTor  (father of Ether)
    coriANTum  (Jaredite king)
    coriANTum  (Jaredite prince)
    coriANTum  (Jaredite captive)
    coriANTumr  (Lamanite general) [sic]

    coriANTumr  (last of Lamanites) [sic]
    ANTum  (land of)
    gadiANTon  (a robber chief)
    irreANTum  (body of water)
    moriANTon  (land of)
    moriANTum  (land of)
    seANTum  (a Nephite)

    But why should not the latter member of the term "Anti-Masonic" be reflected among the names in the Book of Mormon, as well as the former? So the reader may ask, and so the writer looked, and behold it was, in

    MAthONI   and   MAthonihah

    Just lisp the sibilant and you have the entire word "Mason" and almost the entire word "Masonic" in both of these appellations. Does this only happen so? Then why does there not happen to be in the list a single Bathon, Cathon, Sathon, Pathon, Rathon, Sathon, Tathon, Vathon, Wathon, or Zathon? Not one of these is more unlikely in itself than certain names which do occur, as "Zeezrom." But it is precisely "Mathon."

    This brings us to a resembling group of odd names.

    Zeezrom  (a corrupt lawyer)
    Zeezrom  (a city)

    Cezorum  (leader or tool of robbers)
    Seezorum  (judge elected by robber band)

    Each of these names commences with the soft or hard sibilant, each is followed by sounds which may be variously spelled

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  381

    "eez," "ex," or "ese," and each continues with "ro" or the same letters reversed in order. It seemed to the present writer that they also must have risen from some obsessing word which persisted in offering itself, and was accepted four times when slightly disguised. Among the names of the men arrested for Morgan's abduction I found that of one Chesebro. This name resembles those of the above group in several particulars. The initial sound is that which most resembles the sibilant. The combination "ese" is the phonetic equivalent of "eez" and "ez." And, disregarding the "b," "ro" is found in two of the group, and in the other two in reversed order. Compare CHESEbRO and ZEEZROm.

    But why should the name of this man have produced an emotional impression more than the names of the other three men convicted, -- Lawson, Sawyer and Sheldon? For no reflections from the latter three can be found. Research disclosed that Chesebro was the principal actor and spokesman in the proceedings against Morgan up to the time that he was taken from Canandaigua jail and hurried to the Canada line. 19 Chesebro was the man who obtained the warrant for Morgan's arrest on the charge of theft. Chesebro raised the posse that went to Batavia after him. Chesebro is almost the only one mentioned as speaker at the time of leaving Batavia, in the various affidavits. Chesebro had another legal paper read so that when Morgan was acquitted in Canandaigua he was rearrested for debt and put in jail. Chesebro appears to have been behind the proceedings by which Morgan was delivered from jail and started on the way to Canada. Chesebro's sentence was lighter than that of Lawson, because he was to a degree sheltered by legal forms, and although Lawson had the most prominent part in the final journey, and Chesebro drops out, the later incidents remained in comparative obscurity. And let it be noted that Canandaigua is but nine miles from Manchester, the home of Joseph Smith, who if not there during a part of 1826, without question lived there after his marriage in January, 1827, when the excitement was at its height.

    Finally, in this connection, the name Archeantus, already cited among those affected by the "Anti" prefix, probably reveals another relationship. It was charged that the actual drowning of Morgan was accomplished directly after the installation

    19 "William Morgan, or political Anti-Masonry," Rob Morris. "Republican Advocate," Batavia, N. Y., issue of Sept. 28, 1826. "Narrative of the facts and circumstances relating to the kidnapping and presumed murder of William Morgan," Rochester, 1827.

    382                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    of a Royal Arch chapter, by persons who took part therein. Also that Morgan himself became a Royal Arch Mason a year or two before his supposed death. Thus we find anti and arch appropriately conjoined in "Archeantus."

    Thus far, we have found the one Morgan-Antimasonic complex (the same which in after years subconsciously influenced Joseph Smith to call his fiscal institution, on the wildcat bills which it issued, an "Anti-Banking Company") influential in the production of 59 names out of the about 350 in the Book of Mormon, or more than a quarter of the whole list, aside from those either taken intact from the Bible (77) or transparent imitations of Biblical names (upwards of 50). 20

    As has been said, in spite of the abduction of Morgan his pamphlet, professing to disclose the ritual of the first three degrees of Masonry, was published. Later in the same year, 1827, someone followed it with a pamphlet revealing the ritual of the four next higher degrees. Still later the two pamphlets were issued as one, and are so reprinted to-day. Now the author of the Book of Mormon was familiar with the Morgan pamphlet but not with the other. The proof of this double assertion is found in the fact that in almost every case where, in the Morgan pamphlet, a word is capitalized or italicised because of its technical employment in the ritual, the word is found in a slightly disguised form among the proper names of the Book of Mormon, besides other reflections, while no such reflections from the second publication are discernible. Anyone can consult the reprint for himself, and test the truth of the following assertions.

    We do not find "Tubal-Cain" (italicised on pages 55, 59, and 80 of the Morgan pamphlet) in the Book of Mormon, but we do find TUBALoth.

    We do not find "shibboleth" (italicised on pages 39, 40, 43, 45, 49, 53, and 79), but we do find SHIBLom (two applications) and SHIBLon.

    We do not find "Jachin" (capitalized on pages 43 and 79, and italicised on pages 43, 46, and 52, but we do find JACom and JAshoN.

    We do not find "Mahabone" (capitalized on pages 80 and italicised on page 64), but we find MAHAH.

    We do not find "Hiram Abiff" (italicised on page 61), but we find ABIsh.

    20 See "Dictionary of the Book of Mormon," Geo. Reynolds.

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  383

    On page 52 of the Morgan pamphlet there is an allusion to the (mythical) Palestinian city of "Zaradatha." There are no italics this time to make this name stand out, but its own sonorous, mouth-filling magnitude was probably as effective, besides which the purported city is mentioned in the course of a paragraph which, as we shall see, for other reasons strongly impressed the writer of the pseudo-history. The chief city of the Book of Mormon is not called Zaradatha, but it is called ZARAhemlA, -- the same first two syllables, the same termination, only three letters in the same total of nine altered, the same number of syllables. Who can doubt the relationship of the two artifacts?

    The two "Jonases" in the Mormon set of twelve disciples is probably reminiscent of the fact that the Masons dedicate their lodges to John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, as stated on page 39 of the Morgan pamphlet; and "Jonas" is suggestive of Johns, aside from there being two of the former.

    An amusing instance, and one of the most significant, is the name " Isabel," one of the three feminine ones in the Book of Mormon. With the illiterate writer, indeed, there was nothing about this word to put either his upper consciousness or his interior "psychic censor" on guard. But to us the Old French and Spanish name Isabel is richly grotesque considered as that of a descendant of Israelitish stock living in America some 2,000 years ago. The source of its adoption is clear almost to demonstration. For reasons which cannot here be set down it appears that the writer was familiar with some hook giving a meagre account of the first voyages to America and a very elementary description of the so-called civilizations found there, in Peru, Central America and Mexico. What woman was bound to be mentioned, far more prominently than any other if not exclusively? Manifestly Isabella, the Castilian queen who financed Columbus's memorable first voyage to America. The name Isabella, insistently knocking for admission through the avenue of the writer's mind into the Book of Mormon, would be rejected, but under the slight disguise of "Isabel" it effected entrance.

    21 Isabel (B. of M., Alma 39:3-4) is represented as a harlot. This too may be a result of associative processes in a dreamily reminiscent mind: (1) The author was familiar the ultra-Protestant view identifying the Roman Church with the "scarlet woman," and the "harlot" of the Revelation of St. John. (2) Isabella being a Roman Catholic, and the Spanish Inquisition having been founded during her and Ferdinand's reign, the concepts of the "scarlet woman" and of Isabella tend to coalesce; (3) the name Isabel successfully emerging in his mind, it draws after it the notion of harlotry.

    384                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    Before parting with the Morgan pamphlet utterly, we may clinch its connection with the Mormon scripture by reference to several matters not concerned with proper names. In the latter is the curious incident of Lehi's finding at the door of his tent (1) a ball, (2) made of brass, (3) hollow, (4) having inside, (5) two spindles, (6) one of which persistently pointed the way that should be traveled. 22 A brass ball, with spindles inside, seems a curious sort of an arrangement far even a miraculous compass, neither is it evident from the narrative why there were two spindles. But turn to page 52 of the Morgan pamphlet and all is clear. There we find it declared (though the information is not authentic) that on each of the two great pillars in Solomon's Temple was (1) "a large globe or ball" that it was (2) of "brass," that it was (3) "hollow," and that (4) inside were (5) two sets of maps, one of the celestial, (6) the other of the terrestrial bodies. We see now why the spindles of Lehi were inside the brass ball, this is a mere, unreasoning reminiscence of something being inside the pretended hall of the temple. And we see why there were two spindles, there were two sets of maps in the archetypal ball. One of the spindles was certainly a good substitute for terrestrial maps, as it pointed exactly the way to go, while the other is reminiscent only, without its use being explained.

    Again, Nephi on a certain occasion, stretches forth his hand, and his brothers experience "a shock."23 We need only to cite that on page 27 of the Morgan pamphlet it is stated that at one stage of the opening of a lodge the members stamp and clap their hands at the same instant, and that this is called (italics in the original) the shock."

    The exhibition thus far of the psychical mechanics involved in the invention of names for the Book of Mormon has been of interest, but has afforded only stray, though significant indications that the writer was Joseph Smith. 24 Unfortunately

    22 B. of M., I Nephi 16:10.

    23 B. of M., I Nephi 17:53.

    24 There are many indications of a sort not pertinent to this paper of Smith's authorship. In fact Joseph can be seen at various intervals, walking through the volume. As the dreams of Lehi, father of Nephi, repeat the substance of the dreams of Joseph's father, so Nephi himself in his relations with his unbelieving as well as his believing brothers, probably stands for Joseph and his brothers with their differing views regarding his early claims. Over and over again passages reflect the known environment of Joseph Smith. Facts personal to Joseph are found. For example he is known to have practiced "crystal-gazing." and in the Book of Mormon more than one mention of a transparent stone which revealed hidden facts is to be found. To all but believers in the authenticity of the book as a record of ancient American peoples.

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  385

    our knowledge of his early experiences of strongly emotional cast is but scanty. But we do know that he was forming an attachment for a certain girl in 1825, and that he married her Jan. 18, 1827. Since the hook in question contains scattered throughout it passages and names which reflect the Anti-Masonic excitement, it could hardly have got on very far before 1826, and it must have been finished by 1829, for in that year it was copyrighted. The period of Smith's courtship and early married life corresponds, then, pretty closely with the period when the Book of Mornlon was writing. Since no name is more vividly engraved on the mind of a young man than that of the girl of whom he is enamored, if Joseph Smith wrote the hook and if our thesis in regard to the influence of emotional complexes upon its proper names. is correct, we ought to he able to find the first name of his sweetheart, Emma, and very likely the last name also, Hale, in penetrable disguise. We do not find "Emma," nor would we expect to do so, for the "psychic censor" above or below the threshold would not let it pass. But we do find both Emer" and Ammah," the two proximate substitutes. We do not find "Hale," though that must have clamored for emergence, but it repeatedly succeeded in securing adoption unrecognised by the device of exchanging the vowels. Thus we have

    (Separate and
    distirict persons
    and places)

    If these correspondences are accidental, it ought to be as easy to find correspondences in the cases of names hit upon haphazard, or taken en masse. For example, I will produce the names of all my living near and feminine blood-relatives (not to make the list too long), and anyone interested may compare them for himself, if he will take the trouble, with the list of names in the Book of Mormon. First names: Elmira, Louise, Clara, Ella, Cora, Imogen, Maude, Nellie, Mabel. Last names: Prince, Blackman, Graves. There is one slight resemblance, that of Louise to Luram and one stronger one, that of Cora to a group of names beginning

    with all its glaring departures from historical possibilities, the prediction that there would arise a seer who should be Joseph junior and do various things that the actual Joseph Junior professed to have done, and the prediction of a peculiar accident which happened in the course of the " translation" of the Golden Plates causing Joseph considerable discomfort, point to him as author.

    386                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    "Cor---." But of course out of a considerable number of names taken at random or en masse occasional accidental resemblances are bound to occur. It is where we are able to go to the spot and say, if this principle which we appear to have discovered is really valid, such a name should find a resemblance, and the predicted result over and over again follows, that the correspondences are convincing. We happen upon accidental occurrences now and then, but science, the knowledge of governing law, foretells occurrences and where they shall be looked for. Take the population of the earth and you will occasionally find a man who paints a turtle as a synibol in some way personal to himself, but ethnological science says, if that particular man belongs to such an Iridian tribe he certainly paints a turtle upon his cheek, as the totem-mark of his nativity. Moreover the list of my female relatives did not disclose accidental resemblances beyond both first and last names, of a single individual and Mormon names, whereas both Emma and Hale find their correspondences, as was most unlikely to occur by chance, but almost certain by operation of the psychological law which has been explained.

    Again, one would naturally predict that if any of the numerous towns which Joseph Smith lived in prior to 1826 were to be found reflected in the names of the Book of Mormon, Sharon, where he was born, and Manchester which was his residence from his 13th to his 20th year, and again after his marriage, would be the ones, rather than those which boasted of him for short periods between the time of his birth and his 13th year. And we do find SiRON, and

    MANti (Nephite spy)              also four Hela MANs
    MANti (city)                             and six LaMANs
    MANti (land)
    MANti (hill)

    One may object that the Mantis have been already accounted for by the obsessing "Anti." This is true, but the two derivations do not exclude each other, but on the contrary furnish a good example of the processes involved. Having got as far as the Man suggested by the name of his own town, the reminiscent consciousness of Smith found itself already in the anti groove, and completed the short journey.

    It appeared to the present writer, by this time, almost certain that the name Harmony, that of the town where Joseph Smith spent so many happy, loving hours courting Emma, would be discernible, so he again consulted the list and found HiMNI. I need not point out the radical resemblance. Is

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  387

    that resemblance accidental, and not due to all the haunting cadences of the doubly-blessed name "Harmony?" Let us again test the theory of accident by my own relatives, who certainly had no part in the authorship of the Book of Mormon. My father got his girl in Detroit; if there is any name in the Book of Mormon which strongly resembles Detroit it will certainly be an accident. The only two Mormon names beginning with D are David and Desolation. One of my uncles got his girl in Palmyra; there is nothing nearer than Pahoran. My other uncle got his girl in Pittsfield; there is nothing nearer than Pacumeni. My older brother got his girl in Moxie; Mocum is the nearest resemblance. I got my girl in Newport, which matches best with Nehor. My younger brother got his girl in Detroit, which finds only David and Desolation to be compared with. This is not a selected list, for I know not where another male relative got the partner of his joys and sorrows. But here are six cases in any one of which a decided resemblance might turn up by chance, over against one case where the decided resemblance was looked for in obediance to law. A shadowy resemblance or two may indeed be fancied between members of the group and names in the Book of Mormon, but surely nothing comparable with this:

    HarMoNY                           HiMNI

    The two emotional experiences of which we know, in Jpseph Smith's early life, were exceedingly frutful of effects upon the invention of proper names in the strange book which must have been his companion. Were we informed of other such experiences, we could doubtless trace their effects also. One such, we are reasonably sure, existed, to account for the first two syllables in a group of names already casually referred to. This is the list.

    Corianton  (son of Alma)
    Coriantor  (father of Ether)
    Coriantum  (Jaredite king)
    Coriantum  (Jaredite prince)
    Coriantum  (Jaredite captive)
    Coriantumr  (Lamanite general)

    Coriantumr  (last of the Jaredites)
    Corihor  (Jaredite prince)
    Corihor  (another Jaredite)
    Corihor  (land of)
    Korihor  (Nephite anti-Christ)

    Here are eleven names in every one of which the first two syllables are pronounced exactly the same. If the author was, before he met Emma, we will say, in love with a girl named Cora, that might account for it. If a man named Corey was the center of a strong emotional experience, that would account for it still better. We do not have the data to determine

    388                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    what the experience was which set the combination "Cori--" so frequently knocking, though pretty certain that there was one,

    Was there a discernible tendency to apply obsessing words, in disguised form, with discrimination, attaching those of agreeable association to persons conceived of as good, and those of disagreeable connotation to those regarded bad, in the Book of Mormon? It would seem so, the tendency apparently acting in dreamy fashion, and hence not always accurately. For example, Morgan was regarded as a martyr, dying for the sacred cause of light and liberty, hence to be considered as crowned with the pleasing halo of goodness. Of the eleven mythical persons whose names are reflections of his, eight appear to have been good and three bad. On the contrary, Chesebro, as the persecutor of Morgan, was regarded as a fierce, disagreeable personage. Accordingly Cezorum was a robber belonging to a "secret combination;" Seezorum was a corrupt judge, member of the same order; and Zeezrom was a wicked lawyer (note that Chesebro was the one of Morgan's abductors who sheltered himself under legal warrants) who withstood the servants of God. Emma and Hale were certainly names invested with agreeable associations, and all the characters, seven in number, whose names are reflections from one or the other of these, appear to be good. Harmony, as the place of Joseph's love-making, was surely one of charm, and we are prepared to find Himni an exemplary gentleman. At first it might appear that Mathoni and Mathonihah, since Masonry is so dreadful, should have been bad men, but then we remember that "Anti-Masonic" was the obsessing word and Anti-Masonry was regarded as irreproachable.

    There is also somewhat of a tendency in the names derived from a particular complex to group, themselves together in the Book of Mormon narrative. For example, Ammoron is most prominent in connection with a correspondence between him and Moroni, and is killed in the city of Moroni, which is in the land of Moroni, while Amoron is mentioned only as the giver of certain information to Mormon. No attempt has been made to work out further groupings.

    We have already seen that Joseph Smith in after years manifested one of the obstacles so visible in the Book of Mormon, when he gave his Kirtland fiscal institution the singular name, "Anti-Banking Company." Moroni is also one of the betraying names of the Book of Mormon, but it is outside of its covers that we are told of the resurrected

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  389

    Moroni, who led the way to the Golden Plates. It is certainly the mouth of Joseph Smith now that utters the names of veiled significance in connection with his own alleged adventures. It is not in the Book of Mormon, but in one of those subsequent "revelations," which if Deity did not compose them, Joseph Smith did, that Joseph is given a new name. 25 This name, Gazelam, is of double significance: first because it was applied in the Book of Mormon to a man [sic] who was given a stone in which to see hidden things, exactly as Joseph himself had been accustomed to seek for knowledge by means of a "peep-stone;" and secondly because the very word "Gazelam" contains concealed another word expressive of the process by which knowledge was thus sought.

    And best of all, it is in one of Joseph Smith's "revelations" that we are informed that the name of a character unnamed in the Book of Mormon, and undesignated other than that he was "the brother of Jared," was really Mahonri Moriancumr. Now that we have the keys to his ruling complex, he might as well have written that the name was:

    MASONRY         MORGAN

    25 Smith's "revelations" likewise gave new names to some of his living associates, and to things. In some instances the mechanism so apparent in the Book of Mormon is discernible here, as when he renames Oliver (Cowdery) Olihah, and the tannery tahhanes. But in other cases there is no resemblance, probably because the "psychic censor," having the models so closely at hand, took alarm and rejected similar sound-combinations.




        Founded by G. Stanley Hall in 1887.
    VOL. XXX.                                   JANUARY, 1919                                   No. 1
      [pg. 66]


    The above title is given by Walter F. Prince to an essay published in the American Journal of Psychology for July, 1917, vol 28, No. 3, pp. 373-389. The first paragraph suggests some assurance that his essay is going to be "the application of rigorous psychological tests" to determine the authorship of the Book of Mormon. I judge that Mr. Prince conceives himself to be using the methods of the analytic psychologists. His conclusion is that "prolonged analysis and comparison * * * make it incredible that Spaulding had any connection with the book, doubtful that Rigdon was implicated, certain that Joseph Smith's hand is perceptible in every part, and probable that he was the sole author, the edifice of whose imagination echoed to reminiscences which he was far from recognizing." Also that "all the assignable data point to him (Joseph Smith) and him alone as the author." This conclusion he says, "is maintained by a few scholars (himself and I. Woodbridge Riley. Any one else?) mostly within the last 15 years."

    I am of a contrary opinion, even after reading Mr. Riley as well as Mr. Prince's "rigorous psychological tests." I believe that the main features of the literary plot for the Book of Mormon and many of the names of its characters and place[es] were supplied by the Rev. Solomon Spaulding. That this was revised, mostly by Rev. Sidney Rigdon. It was again re-written or revised between Sept. 22, 1827, and June 11, 1829. This last revision was a collaboration, I believe, of Sidney Rigdon, Parley P. Pratt, Oliver Cowdery, and perhaps Emma Smith, Hyrum Smith and Joseph Smith. In this work I believe the Smiths were the least potent factors. The historical evidences by which I justify these conclusions have been published and will not be repeated. 1 In short, I conceive Joseph Smith to have been an ignorant conscious fraud, at first a mere tool used by more cunning schemers.

    Here I desire to discuss only the intellectual processes involved

    1 See: Origin of the Book of Mormon, in Amer. Historical Magazine, Sept., 1906, to May, 1907; Republished in Salt Lake Tribune, three Sunday issues in Nov. and Dec., 1907; Also in pamphlet form. Additional corroborative matter can be found scattered through my other essays on Mormonism.

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  67

    in Dr. Prince's "rigorous psychological tests." To me they seem not at all rigorous nor a valid test of anything, and not even an important contribution to any problem except perhaps to the psychology of Dr. Prince. From my view-point it appears that Dr. Prince is exhibiting in marked degree such defective psychologic prcesses as I have on rare occasions observed in some Freudians. By dealing so constantly with those archaic modes of thinking which dominate hysterical patients and primitive peoples some analysts, like the victims of archaic mental processes, tend to lose sight of the fact that there are intellectual methods different from those of the average adolescents or even of average human adults. Psychoanalysts become very expert in unraveling and consciously imitating the archaic mental processes of their patients. If not clearly conscious of the difference between archaic and mature modern intellectual processes, then analytic psychologists tend to become so obsessed with this unique skill of theirs that they forget to lay it aside for the use of more scientific procedure when dealing with problems other than the immediate theraputic measures. Thus they sometimes tend to become the victims of their own subconscious love of conscious archaic modes of thinking and in consequence they misapply it. This I conceive to be the immediate cause of the evident fallacies of Dr. Prince.

    Assume, if you please, that some psychologist obsessed by an emitional conflict over masonry, or other secret societies, had undertaken "the application of rigorous psychological tests" to the problem of the authorship of the Book of Mormon. In all probability his tests would have failed in their rigor. Finding that the content of the Book of Mormon had quite certainly been influenced by the Masonic conflicts of the time, his own compulsive archaic mode of reacting would tend to play him a trick accoding to well known hysterical procedure. That is to say: his unconscious compulsion toward archaic modes of thinking in relation to secret societies would probably compel him to project his own complex into Smith, only to rediscover it where he had placed it. Then it would compel him to justify his "discovery" by a special plea based upon specially selected material accompanied by the ignoring of all evidence which tends to contradict his obsession. Thus he would prove to his own satisfaction and that of others similarly obsessed, that Smith was dominated as he himself is being unconsciously controlled. But how does this hypothetical procedure differ in its visible factors from Dr. Walter Prince's application of rigorous psychological tests? We shall see that there is no difference.

    68                              A.  THEODORE  SCHROEDER                                

    Let us now assume another type of psychologist, one who has no subconsciously working obsessions to read into the situation; one who uses mature intellectual methods instead of the archaic ones. How would such a person proceed with "the application of rigorous psychologic tests" to discover all the historic factors of the problem [?] First he would do a little reading to discover all the historic factors of the problem. Among the seven persons who might possibly have contributed to the contents of the Book of Mormon, he would never arbitrarily choose one as its author, and then justify his choice by a pettifogging special plea. On the contrary his "rigorous psychologic tests" would have been applied with equal rigor to all possible authors to discover with whom rests the preponderance of evidence. This would be a better means of determining the choice between the possible authors instead of using mystical psychologic procedure to justify a choice, perhaps determined by unconscious subjective conditions, existing in the psychologist.

    It seems to me that Dr. W. F. Prince weaves a large fabric of theory, using as his woof partially selected material from the Book of Mormon, and as his warp a succession of assumptions, for which we find an adequate explanation only in the psychoanalytic study of Dr. Prince himself.

    His argument is constructed mainly from the selection of names appearing in the Book of Mormon. These he finds possessed of certain clang associations, largely with anti-masonry and Morgan. His assumption is that Smith is the coiner of these names. The historic evidence is that some of the names in the Book of Mormon were coined by Spaulding.

    Upon this and other evidence the claim of Smith's plagiarism from Spaulding is founded. Manifestly it is therefore absurd to think that this plagiarism can be disapproved by psychologic tests which assume the very thing to be proven, namely: that the Book of Mormon names are of Smith's coinage.

    Dr. Walter F. Prince appears to assume without one particle of evidence, except that in the absence of thorough investigation it might possibly seem to have been so, that a Masoney-Morgan "ruling complex" existed in the author of the Book of Mormon and that clang association is the only mental process by which it could be made effective, and that among the seven possible collaborators Smith only was afflicted with such an obsession.

    A person with different predisposition might have found some evidence that Smith went into the Mormon scheme purely from a desire to get a little easy money. A person eager to justify such a theory by "rigorous psychologic tests" might not choose the Masonic Morgan complex to explain the

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  69

    frequency of the name Mormon and numerous others of the similar component sounds. From the money-complex point of view it might look like MORe MONey. It seems just as likely that this explains the fact that out of the forty names beginning with M, 25 begin with Mor. If one is going to solve this problem by one's own archaic modes of thinking, and thus read onself into the situation, it is perhaps possible to find several plausible explanations for the choice of the names selected by Dr. Prince. If the explanation to which we are predesposed cannot be proven from the names of the book, probably they can be found in its other factors. Perhaps among these one might consider of much significance the choice of numerous Bible quotations which are incorporated in the Book of Mormon.

    One who is more zealous as to the use of the scientific method would not assume without discussion that the secret society contents of the Book of Mormon were due to unconscious processes. It is certainly possible that Smith and his co-conspirators very consciously, and on a thorough consideration of the objective factors of their problem, decided that an anti-secret-society attitude would add to the book's popularity and to the financial returns of their fraud. It requires evidenciary facts, and not mere assumption to destroy that possible explanation for the anti-Masonic references in the Book of Mormon.

    One who is more rigorous than Dr. Prince in his psychologic tests and yet had no broader aim than by psychologic methods merely to determine how much evidence could be found to support the claim of Smith's authorship of the Book of Mormon would proceed very differently. Such a person might begin with a study of Doctrine and Covenants, a volume of "revelations" for which Smith frankly assumed responsibility and where no question of plagiarism is involved, and which has much internal evidence of being dominated at least in thought by Smith's personal conscious motives. From this volume one could probably learn something of Smith's complexes. There one could find evidence also to support the theory of a dominant money-complex. Then his authorship of the Book of Mormon might to some extent be tested out, by seeing if these dominant complexes otherwise discovered to exist in him, find equal predominance in the contents of the Book of Mormon.

    Dr. Prince reverses this procedure. He finds in the Book of Mormon much that evidently reflects the Masonic controversy of the time. He assumes that this must be the product of the unconscious processes of the author's complexes. Then

    70                              A.  THEODORE  SCHROEDER                                

    he assumes that Joseph Smith is the author. Next he argues that therefore, Smith must be obsessed by an anti-Masonry complex. Finally he manufactures history to acquire a seeming confirmation to his theory.

    Dr. Prince admits that in the large volume of Smith's "revelations" he finds only three circumstances to support his theory of a dominant obsession revealed by clang associations. Instead of allowing this to create a doubt as to the correctness of his theory he invents an explanation without evidence when he says it is so, "probably because the 'psychic censor' having the models so closely at hand took alarm and rejected similar sound combinations." In other words, when the Book of Mormon was finished, Smith's "obsession" suddenly and permanently disappears without any other explanation, and Joseph Smith himself became a mason, in spite of this anti-masonic obsession. Not long after its organization the Mormon church as a whole became a secret society and later was admittedly a "bastard masonry." At the time of writing the Book of Mormon, 2 Hyrum Smith a brother and co-conspirator of Joseph Smith was already a mason, as also were Heber Kimball and others of the neighborhood who became leading Mormons. It requires more evidence than Dr. Prince has produced to prove that Joseph Smith had an anti-masonic obsession, working subconsciously.

    But let us examine the one evidence of anti-masonic obsession which is adduced by Dr. Prince as being operative after 1829. He says that "the one Morgan-Anti-Masonic complex * * * in after years subconsciously influenced Joseph Smith to call his fiscal institution on the wild cat bills which it issued an 'Anti-Banking Company.'" But is it true? Again we have mere assumption both as to the nature of the complex and of the subconsciousness of the determinant of this choice.

    The fact is that Smith had organized the "Kirtland Safety Society" without well defined purpose in its articles of agreement. Under this charter he attempted to do a banking business and issued "wild cat" notes in the usual form as emanating from a Kirtland Safety Society Bank. This, I suspect, was done in violation of the banking laws of the State and Smith became apprehensive of arrest. In this situation Smith's problem was one of evading the banking laws without seriously lowering the efficience of his fraud. Smith solved his problem in this fashion. The company was reorganized under the title of "Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company" whose articles of agreement did not specifically authorize the doing of banking business. The capital stock was fixed at

    2 Masonic Standard, April 7, Sept. 1, 1906; also: Salt Lake Tribune, June 24, 1917.

                      AUTHORSHIP  OF  THE  BOOK  OF  MORMON                  71

    "not less than" $4,000,000 and the articles of association authorized the officers to do unlimited borrowing. The bank notes already existing were again run through a printing press and the prefix "anti" and the suffix "ing" and "Company" were printed before and after the word "Bank." It was doubtless believed that this would furnish a sufficient technical legal defence against a charge of falsely and fraudently pretending to conduct a bank in conformity with the modest safe-guards of the banking statutes. At the same time the prefix "anti" and the other additions were printed in such small type relating to the word "Bank," that careless observers would still be effectively deceived, and yet perhaps the penalities of the law would be technically evaded. In the light of the facts objective to Smith, what need or excuse is there for assuming without even the least evidence that this use of the prefix "anti" was "subconsciously influenced" by a dominant "Morgan-Anti-Masonic complex?" Is Dr. Prince again revealing the subconscious influence of his own anti-secret society complex?

    Why should one assume that Smith more than Rigdonor Cowdry had read and been influenced by anti-masonry literature when that is the very issue to be decided by "rigorous psychologic texts?" Rigdon, Pratt and Cowdry at least could read and write. Smith was so illiterate that he could not even write his own manuscripts. Oliver Cowdry was his chief but not his only amanuensis.

    Again Dr. Prince says truly that the author of the Book of Mormon "was familiar with some book giving a meagre account of the first voyage to America." Why familiar with only "meagre account?" Spaulding we are informed had a considerable knowledge of fact and speculation in relation to this subject. Why assume that such knowledge influenced the illiterate Smith and that such knowledge did not come through Spaulding, the Amherst [sic] graduate?

    Only for the sake of the argument, let us assume with Dr. Prince that the name Olihah in the Book of Mormon [sic, D&C?] could not possibly have any other origin than as a subconscious variation of Oliver. Yet why also assume without evidence that Smith and not his scribe and fellow conspirator Oliver Cowdery is responsible for the choice?

    Again let me assume without evidence as does Dr. Prince that the word "tahhanes" in the Book of Mormon [sic, D&C?] could have no other origin than a subconscious variation of "tannery." How does this prove that Smith had a tannery complex? I remember no evidence that Smith ever saw a tannery. I do know of evidence that Sidney Rigdon worked in a tannery. This would tend to confirm my theory as to Rigdon's revision

    72                              A.  THEODORE  SCHROEDER                                

    of Spaulding's manuscript, rather than to prove Smith's authorship.

    Dr. Prince makes much of names in his argument. Thus true to his own psychologic predisposition he cannot allow any other origin for the name Maroni [sic] except that some old anti-masonry-Morgan complex. In the light of the historical evidence of the plagiarism of the Book of Mormon from Spaulding's "Manuscript Found" another possible explanation suggests itself. Spaulding was a clergyman with two degrees from Amherst [sic, Dartmouth?] College. He must have known something of history and Latin and the use of reference books. If such a person had been seeking for the names of persons which were to be used in fiction as emigrants to prehistoric America he might have easily found and appropriated the name "Morone or Moroni" from the Italian where it distinguishes several prominent citizens. One of the persons who made the name of Moroni famous was a Romanist cardinal who suffered imprisonment for heresy under Pope Paul IV. It is quite possible that Spaulding, the heretical backsliding clergyman found something attractice in the life of Cardinal Morone or Moroni, and that this induced him to select that name for some of the characters of his story, and particularly as the name of an angel who showed where the ancient record of Mormon was buried, on the basis of which Spaulding thought (according to preserved evidence) to establish a new religion, to show the absurdity of all religions. Of course I do not know that this is the true explanation of the use of that name. But I will say that in the light of the historic evidence of Spaulding's contribution to the contents of the Book of Mormon this sense seems to me a better supported explanation than that Smith coined the name in consequence of a subconscious Morgan-Ant-Masonic complex. Other names in the Book of Mormon can be similarly explained. Furthermore it seems to me that the special character of the variations used in similar Mormon names find at least plausible explanation in Spaulding's study of Latin. That I must not discuss at this time.

    I believe that even this brief criticism of Dr. Prince's "application of rigorous psychologic tests" to the problem of authorship of the Book of Mormon shows his method to be so defective as to leave his conclusions wholly valueless. He reasons around in a circle, in a fine mystical or archaic fashion. Perhaps he should secure the services of a psychoanalyst for his self understanding before he attempts to use psychology as a tool to explain others. Then he will not be tempted to construct special pleas in support of personal whims.




        Founded by G. Stanley Hall in 1887.
    VOL. XXX.                                   JULY, 1919                                   No. 3
    [pg. 427]


    My attention has been called to an article by Mr. Theodore Sxhroeder in the January issue of this magazine, by way of "reply" to my paper in the July, 1917, issue, entitled "Psychological Tests for Authorship of the Book of Mormon."

    Had my argument solely consisted of the disjuncts membrs which he has torn bleeding from the body of it, it would indeed have deserved contempt. To anyone who has read the emasculated and perverted version all I need to say is, go back and read, for the second or first time, the argument which I really did make. And let him note that the theme is not the authority of the Book of Mormon (which must by a variety of proofs be awarded, at least in the main, to Joseph Smith) but the contribution which certain psychological texts make to the settlement of the question. Readers who carefully ponder the array of correspondences which I put upon exhibit will not have difficulty in perceiving their collective weight.

    But Mr. Schroeder speaks with such confidence about my mental peculiarities (as though these had any bearings upon the data presented), and with such authority about Mormon literature, that I must add a few words of warning.

    Unfortunately in his "psychoanalysis" of my humble self he has discovered as Josh Billings would say, "much that ain't so." He assumes:

    (1) That I am a Freudian, which is not true, save in a very modified sense.

    (2) That I was governed by "complexes" in the composition of my article. That seems a gratuitous assumption as the strength of the article is in its facts which remain the same whatever my "complexes." Perhaps the analyser remembered that he had to explain, in connection with one title in a list of his published papers: "This letter was written under pro-Mormon sympathies which made the author believe he was answering the 'church and state' accusation." He should not so rashly ascribe to others his own emotional tendencies.

    (3) That my particular "obsession" is an "anti-secret-society complex." And I a Free-Mason myself, without any prejudices or emotional shocks related to Masonry!

    (4) That I arbitrarily chose to fix the authorship of the Book of Mormon upon Joseph Smith. Why on earth would I do that? On the contrary it was the psychological reflections in the book, together with the reflections of the period and region in which he lived, which focussed upon him.

    (5) That I am ignorant of the historical facts, whereas I have been familiar with the pro and con of these for many years. I did not give a whole history of the Kirtland Bank because it would have been irrelevant. The particular device which suggested itself to Smith's mind in his bank difficulty was the only pertinent feature of it.

    (6) That I neglected "Doctrine and Covenants" in the application of the tests. Yet my paper plainly sets forth similar reactions in both this and other acknowledged utterances of Smith.

    428                                     WALTER  F.  PRINCE                                    

    (7) That I was unaware that Smith was afterwards a Mason, or that this matters. He may have been a Mason before the Book of Mormon was written for all that I know. Thousands of Masons left their lodges in disgust in 1826-27, and many afterwards reentered them.

    I take space for only two or three of Mr. Schroeder's queer misunderstandings of my statements, and lapses through insufficient acquaintance with the Mormon literary material he has written so much about.

    He declares that I "assume" that the secret society contents of the Book of Mormon was a subsconscious product. On the contrary I assumed that the whole book was a conscious one, but concealed the mere possibility that it was written in a secondary or dreamy state.

    Why he should be impressed with the necessity of psychoanalyzing me in order to disclose an "anti-secret-society complex." when he himself recognizes that there are anti-secret-society passages in the Book of Mormon, is a mystery.

    He reproaches me for not going to "Doctrine and Covenants," an acknowledged work of Smith (by "revelation"), and at the same time supposes that the inventions "Olihah" and "tahhanes" are in the Book of Mormon. If he had known the literature of his youth better he would have been aware that it is in "Doctrine and Covenants" that these odd terms are found, or he might by reading my article less carelessly have been informed. If my friend will call on me, I will show him my copy of "Doctrine and Covenants," filled with annotations calling attention to quaint locutions which also characterize the Book of Mormon, but are not found in the extant work of Solomon Spaulding.

    Since Mr. Schroeder pins his faith to the naive theory of Spaulding's authorship, he should have explained how the Book of Mormon happens to contain visions which Lucy Smith unintentionally revealed, in a little book which Brigham Young vainly endeavored to suppress because of its damnatory significance, were the dreams of her husband, whose son, Joseph Smith the prophet, was familiar with them from his childhood.


    Transcriber's Comments:
    1901 Schroeder Booklet

    (from a handout prepared by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin)

    Theodore Albert [properly, "Albert Theodore"] Schroeder was born on a farm near Horicon, Wisconsin. After spending his boyhood years in the area and working briefly at odd jobs in Chicago, he attended the University of Wisconsin, receiving both a B. S. in Civil Engineering in 1886, and an LL. B. in 1889. While attending college, he spent his summer doing survey work in South Dakota and other western states.

    In August of 1889, Schroeder opened a law office in Salt Lake City, Utah, where he practiced until 1900. Schroeder's law practice consisted primarily of debt collections and land claim cases. Not a Mormon himself, through his work he met some of the most prominent Mormon leaders of the time, including Lorenzo Snow, Joseph Fielding Smith, Snow's successor in the presidency from 1901 to 1918, and many of the Church's Apostles. His contact with Snow occurred when Snow was president of the Brigham City Mercantile and Manufacturing Association, a firm against which Schroeder brought suit in behalf of the Grant Soap Company in 1896. Schroeder's dealings with Smith concerned some Mormon literature that passed from the latter to the former.

    Schroeder learned still more of Mormons and Mormonism through his activity in Utah politics. He supported the Mormon Apostle, Moses Thatcher, for the U. S. Senate in 1896, and the noted Mormon author, Brigham H. Roberts, for the U. S. House of Representatives in 1895 and 1899. Later, when Roberts brought his thinking more in line with Church-favored political views, Schroeder worked to get him excluded from Congress. Still later, after Schroeder had moved to New York, he opposed the movement to oust from the Senate the famous Mormon Apostle, Reed Smoot, on the grounds that barring a man from public office solely because of his religious views constituted an infringement of his rights to free speech, thought, and religion under the Constitution. Similarly, when he earlier had dropped his support of B. H. Roberts, he did it because Roberts yielded, he thought, to pressures from the church hierarchy, who, in Schroeder's view, had no business trying to influence politics.

    As Schroeder's knowledge of Mormonism increased, so too did his opposition to all things Mormon. But, like the nineteenth century author, lawyer and staunch opponent of Christian religion, Robert G. Ingersoll, whose views had influenced him, Schroeder never fought against the Mormon people. Rather, he was opposed to a system which he believed intellectually enslaved the masses. He became an avid collector of Mormon and anti-Mormon literature and he began what became a political career with a few open letters in the Mormon papers in 1891 under the name of A. T. Heist. His was a lone, but powerful voice speaking out against Mormonism at a time when members of that faith had known relative freedom from persecution and criticism for over thirty years. At first, he so tempered his writing that he seemed almost pro-Mormon, but his staunch opposition to religious intolerance in Church-State issues became more and more evident, until, by 1898, some papers would no longer publish his writings. He turned to pamphlets for an outlet, publishing under the title "Lucifer's Lantern."

    In 1900 Schroeder persuaded Josiah Strong, Director of the League for Social Service, to commit funds to the Roberts case. Strong gave him an office and funds, and Schroeder moved to New York. Later, when he and Strong disagreed over further action in the Roberts case, Schroeder broke with him, but remained in New York. He continued to practice law, helping to found the Free Speech League at Albany, N. Y., on April 7, 1911, and acting as its secretary throughout its existence. After Schroeder left Utah, his essays were regularly printed in the Salt Lake Tribune, a paper whose editorial line was and is in opposition to the Church-owned daily, The Deseret News. At the same time, however, his views were mellowing. While in the east, he became more philosophical and tactful in combating what he considered to be injustices. He began studying evolutionary sexual psychology, which led him to interpret the Bill of Rights even more broadly than he had before. Ultimately, he adopted a psychological approach to all social problems.

    Source: A New Concept of Liberty From an Evolutionary Psychologist: Theodore Schroeder. Selections From His Writings With a Biographical Outline. by Joseph Ishill, (Berkeley Heights, N.: The Oriole Press, 1940.)

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