New Light on Mormonism
1: Contents | 2. Chapters 1-7 | 3. Chapters: 8 9 10 11 12 | 4. Chapters 13-16
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The Prophet's prospects at once brightened when Dr. Galland, a notorious character, presented a part of a large tract of land to him in Carthage County, with a view of making a market for the remainder.
Immediately Joseph had a "revelation" that this was the "centre spot," and he commanded the Saints to assemble here to build a city, a temple, etc. The city, the angel told him, was to be called "Nauvoo," which he said, means "the Beautiful." It is located on the east bank of the Mississippi River, forty miles above Quincy, Ill., and twenty miles west of Burlington, Iowa, at a bend of the river, on rising ground, commanding a magnificent view of the "Father of Waters" for many miles.
The land given to Joseph was divided into lots and sold to the Mormons, by which he realized over one million of dollars. The Saints from all quarters responded to the call to hasten to the new city, and it immediately grew into importance.
Fifteen years before Smith had been known as a common
vagrant; now he was known as a mayor, a pontiff, and as a very rich man, the legislature having granted the city a charter with extraordinary privileges, including the authorization of a military body, afterward known as the "Nauvoo Legion," of which he was the lieutenant-general -- a corps to which all the male Mormons capable of bearing arms belonged.
Nauvoo became the capital of the world to the Mormons, and attracted general attention. This new "everlasting residence" of the Saints was changed from a desert into an abode of plenty and luxury. Gardens sprang up as if by magic, plethoric with the most beautiful flowers of the New and the Old World, whose seeds had been brought from distant lands as souvenirs to the new "Zion;" broad streets were laid out, houses erected, and the busy hum of industries was heard in the marts of Commerce. Steamboats unloaded their stores, and passengers came and departed for fresh supplies of merchandise; fields waved with golden harvests, and cattle dotted the neighboring hills. The new settlement was increased by horse-thieves, house-breakers, robbers, and people of the most disreputable character, who joined the community to cloak their villainous deeds in mystery. Speculators, too, came and bought property with the hope of remuneration. Some of these people were baptized, but being unwilling to pay full tithes, were " ousted " from the ranks, which were again quickly filled.
An intelligent officer of the United States Army, who visited Nauvoo in the height of its prosperity, gives an account of the city and its institutions as he saw them at this time: "Yesterday," he says, "was a great day among the Mormons. Their legion, to the number of two thousand men, were paraded by Generals Smith, Bennett, and others, and certainly made a very fine appearance.
The evolutions of the troops directed by Major-General Bennett would do credit to any body of armed militia.
"What does all this mean? Why this exact discipline of the Mormon corps? Do they intend to conquer Missouri, Illinois, or Mexico?
"Before many years this legion will be fifty thousand strong -- a fearful host, and still augmenting, filled with religious enthusiasm, and led on by ambitious and talented officers, and what may not be effected by them? These Mormons are accumulating like a snow-ball rolling down an inclined plane, which in the end becomes an avalanche. They have appointed Captain Bennett, late of the United States Army, their inspector-general, and he is commissioned as such by Governor Curtin [sic]. This gentleman is skilled in gunnery, fortification, ordnance and military engineering generally and I am told he is now under pay from the tithings of this warlike people I have seen his plans for fortifying Nauvoo, which are equal to any of Tartan's.
"Only a part of their officers are Mormons, but they act with a common interest, and those who are not Mormons when they come here soon become so, from interest or conviction. The Smiths are not without talent, and are said to be brave as lions. Joseph, the chief, is a noble-looking fellow -- a Mahomet, every inch of him.
"The Postmaster, Sidney Rigdon, is a lawyer, philosopher, and Saint. Their other generals are men of talent, and some of them men of learning. They are all unquestionably ambitions, and the tendency of their religious creed is to annihilate all other creeds ; you may therefore see that the time will come when this gathering host of religious fanatics will make the country shake to its centre. A Western empire is certain; ecclesiastical
history presents no parallel to this people, inasmuch as they are establishing their religion on a learned footing. A graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, is president of their university.
"The military parade astonished me and filled me with fears for futureconsequences. The Mormons, it is true, are now peaceable; but the lion is asleep -- take care, don't arouse him.
"This place has been settled only three years. It is well laid out, and seems to be well governed. The adjoining country is beautiful -- a rolling prairie; Nauvoo contains ten thousand people, and in and near this city are thirty thousand of these warlike fanatics, an incorporated army, to whom the arms of the State have been loaned; and of this army a company has been selected to build the Mormon Temple, the site of which has been selected. I am told that all the converts of Mormonism, here and elsewhere, at this time number one hundred and fifty thousand."
From this statement it is obvious that the Saints were again prosperous some three years after their expulsion from Missouri. Not only was the site of the temple chosen, but a hotel was built, where certain of the leaders were to be entertained, "free of expense, forever."
Conferences were held semi-annually and missionaries were appointed to Palestine, Africa, and Europe, and to each Congressional district in the United States. The best educated, the most inquiring and restive ones, were sent on these errands in order to give them a chance to let off the steam of discontent. They were sent with all the promptness of military orders, with a three days' notice for an absence of three years from home and family, which were cared for by the presidency and bishops. Three hundred missionaries were appointed at
one of these conferences. Previous to starting they received orders from Joseph, who preached a rousing sermon to them that stimulated their pride of conquering difficulties without scrip or purse; the main point was that "spiritual wifehood" was to be most pointedly denied; and that they should teach that one man was to live with one woman "in chaste fidelity." He told them to buckle on the armor, "to confound the wise and unwise," etc., thus enlisting their pride, which was the sure way to make full Mormons of the wavering.
At this time (1842) the Mormons boasted of having a hundred thousand in the faith throughout the States, and their vote was a balancing power. They would go in a body in all political questions. The Prophet commenced to agitate the question of a restitution of the property the Saints had lost in Missouri. He visited Washington, had an interview with President Van Buren who said to him; "Sir, your cause is just, but I can do nothing for you." In view of the approaching Presidential election of 1844, letters on the subject of the Mormons' alleged wrongs were addressed to prominent candidates, which elicited answers not at all agreeable to the Saints. In 1843 the Prophet wrote to Henry Clay, who was supposed to have a good chance to be elected to the Presidency, to know what course he would pursue toward the Mormons if he were successful. The correspondence was characteristic of both parties. Smith's letter was to the following effect:
"NAUVOO ILL., November 4, 1843."HON. HENRY CLAY:
"DEAR SIR: As we understand you are a candidate for the Presidency of the next election, and as the Latter
Day Saints (sometimes called Mormons), who now constitute a numerous class in the school politic of this vast Republic, who have been robbed of an immense amount of property and endured nameless sufferings by the State of Missouri, and from her borders have been driven by force of arms, contrary to our natural covenants, and as in vain we have sought redress by all constitutional, legal, and honorable means in her courts, her executive councils, and her legislative halls, and as we petitioned Congress to take cognizance of our sufferings without effect, we have judged it wisdom to address this communication to you and solicit an immediate, specific, and candid reply to what your rule of action relative to us will be as a people, should fortune favor your accession to the chief Magistracy.
"Most respectfully, sir, your friend, and the friend of peace and good order and Congressional rights,
Mr. Clay responded as follows:
"DEAR SIR: I have received your letter in behalf of the Church of Jesus Christ, of the Latter-Day Saints, inquiring what would be my rule of action to you as a people should I be elected, etc. Should I be a candidate, I can enter into no engagements, make no promises, give no pledges to any particular. portion of the people of the United States. I have viewed with lively interest the progress of the Latter-Day Saints. I have sympathized in their sufferings, under injustice, as it appeared to me. I think, in common with all other religious communities, they ought to enjoy the security and protection of the Constitution and the laws. I am, with great respect,
Mr. Clay's reply was very unsatisfactory to the Prophet, who wrote him a second letter which received a still more unsatisfactory reply. He wrote an angry rejoinder, calling Mr. Clay "a blackleg in politics." The letter shows the shrewdness and talent of the man. The following is an extract from it:
"The renowned Secretary of State, the ignoble duelist, the gambling Senator and Whig candidate for the Presidency, Henry Clay, the wise Kentucky lawyer, advises the Latter-Day Saints to go to Oregon, to obtain justice, and set up a government of their own. Why? Great God, to transport two hundred thousand people through a vast prairie over the Rocky Mountains to Oregon -- a distance of nearly two thousand miles -- would cost more than four millions; or should they go around Cape Horn in ships to California, the cost would be more than twenty millions; and all this to save the United States from inheriting the disgrace of Missouri for murdering and robbing the Saints with impunity. Benton and Van Buren, who make no secret to say, if they get into power they will carry out (Governor) Boggs's exterminating plan to rid the country of the Latter-Day Saints, are
Then Smith set forth his "views on government," advocated a national hank, denounced punishment for desertion in the army and navy, would pardon every convict in the penitentiaries, curtail government offices and pay, reduce the number of representatives, and would harmonize everything by declaring all men free to try "honesty and care" in their dealings, and become
a brotherhood. Joseph was put in nomination for the Presidency, and the Mormons have always declared that if he had lived until the next election he would have obtained that office. He was called "The Lion of the Lord" at this time, from his bold spirit and great bravery and power among his followers. A daughter of Joseph's at this time said to a young woman just arrived at Nauvoo:
"If we all do as father directs us, we shall be able to conquer the whole world. The President of the United States will be glad to black father's boots when the thousand years of our reign upon earth commences, and that time will come before long."
THE MORMON TEMPLE AT NAUVOO.On April 6th, 1841, the foundation of the remarkable building at Nauvoo, called the Mormon Temple, was laid by General Joseph Smith, who appeared for the purpose at the head of his legion, surrounded by a numerous staff. Soon after the city of Nauvoo had been laid out the selection was made for this crowning triumph of the wealth and perseverance of the Saints, on the brow of a bluff overlooking the lower town on the river and a wide stretch of country on either side.
The design of the temple, Smith said, was given to him by the angel "Maroni," who explained all the details of the building to him. This "Maroni" was the angel who gave him (as he said) the precious box containing the golden plates. However, he employed a Gentile architect, who drafted it by dictation. All time Saints were called upon to contribute to its erection by time and money.
The building, which was of white limestone and
wrought in superior style, was in the centre of a four-acre lot. It was one hundred and twenty-eight feet long by eighty-three feet in width, and sixty feet in height. There were two stories in the clear and two in the recesses over the arches, making four tiers of windows -- two Gothic and two round. the two lofty stories had two pulpits, one at each end, to accommodate the Melchisedec and Aaronic priesthood, graded into four rising seats: the first for the president of the elders and his two counsellors; the second for the president of the high-priesthood and his two counsellors; the third for the Melchisedec priesthood and his two counsellors; and the fourth for the president of the whole church (Smith) and his two counsellors, there was a carved marble font standing or resting on twelve life-sized oxen in marble in the basement, for the "baptism of the living," "for health, for the remission of sin, and for the salvation of the dead." The temple bad a single tower one hundred feet in height on the side toward the river. On the front of the building was this inscription:
"The House of the Lord, built by the Church of the Latter-Day Saints. Holiness to the Lord."
This structure resembled no other church edifice, but was remarkably unique and graceful in its proportions, particularly the front of it, with its six fluted columns, its carved Corinthian caps, and broad piazza. The walls were of massive thickness; the architectural ornaments of the interior were "holy emblems," and the spire was crowned, or tipped, with a gilt angel and his "gospel trump." P. T. Barnum, it is said, had this gilt angel in his New York museum for years after the destruction of the temple. It was the intention of the Mormons to inclose this beautiful temple with a wall ten feet in height and six in thickness.
The other buildings in Nauvoo were the Seventies' Hall, Masonic Temple, and Concert Hall, and the large hotel which the Prophet said was to be the "Mission House of the world," and where he would entertain "emperors, kings, and queens," from the Old World, who would come to him to inquire of the new faith. There was no licensed place to sell liquors, and drunkenness was almost unknown.
Order and thrift were the rule in this growing, prosperous town. Loafers or idle people were in disrepute. If a stranger entered Nauvoo, his habits and calling were at once a matter of watchfulness; and if he was found to be lazy and without employment he was at once "whittled" out of town by the deacons. This whittling process seems to have been a method by which the suspected person was followed by certain officials, who surrounded him or his abode, and in unison whittled at sticks carried for the purpose. At first it might seem to the doomed one a matter of accident, but its continuance from day to day was too much for human endurance, and the undesirable stranger departed, to the satisfaction of his tormentors. The first really traceable indication. of the purpose of the Prophet to introduce polygamy was in 1841-42, and then it was so furtively done that the thousands that then believed, and still believe, in the mission of Joseph Smith, as set forth by himself, deny that he ever taught such a doctrine. It was brought before the residents of Nauvoo by a quarrel between Major-General Bennett, of the Nauvoo Legion, who (after he had left the Saints) published a book called "Mormonism Exposed," and related his "teaching the Mormon sisters the doctrine of affinity at the command of the Prophet."
There had been. whispers of polygamy among the
leaders of Mormonism at Kirtland, and more than whispers of its existence among them in Missouri -- Sidney Rigdon, it is said, having suggested it to Smith, who at first was scandalized at the thought of its introduction among his followers, but easily adopted its practice, and had a "revelation" allowing the higher officers of the church to have "as many wives as they could support."
Smith's wife, Emma, the "Lady Elect," made a violent opposition at first to this law, and the consolation given to her was "that a Prophet must obey the Lord, and he would be obedient to the heavenly vision."
It is not now denied that polygamy existed at Nauvoo at first secretly and afterward openly; but everything that could be done was done to mislead the public as to the veritable teachings of the Mormon leaders concerning marriage, from the quarrel of Bennett, in 1842, until the open announcement of the revelation by Brigham Young at Salt Lake City in 1852.
The missionaries were commanded to prevaricate, and even positively deny, that the Mormon Church was other than monogamic.
The sons of the Prophet have denied that their father believed in or practised polygamy; but there is overwhelming proof that Joseph Smith had doubtful relations with many "sisters," and was, as he said, a "law unto himself."
Many Mormons who personally knew the Prophet have affirmed that Joseph said it was necessary to have a "revelation" on the subject of marriage "to allay the storm that was brewing among the married women and to satisfy the young women whom it was desirable to convert." Mrs. Smith denounced the "revelation," and talked openly of a separation from the Prophet on that account, but was "softened down" by being told that
the angel commanded her "to cleave unto Joseph," and afterward signed a certificate from "persons of families," declaring that they knew of no rule, or system of marriage, save that written by Oliver Cowdrey on marriage, and that Bennett's "secret-wife system is a creature of his own making." An author writes:
"The most forcible arguments that have yet been adduced on Mormon polygamy are furnished by the pens of the three sons of Joseph Smith at the head of a memorial to Congress protesting against Brigham Young's church founded by their father -- to wit: 'If this doctrine had been presented to the Mormons with the "first principles" taught by the elders, not one in ten thousand would have accepted it.'"
According to another author: "Few of the Mormon women have ever accepted polygamy from the assent of their judgment, having first been led to consider it by their elders or leaders, as a true doctrine, and afterward having been afraid to question it, their fears counselling submission. Many of them have never been able to give it a careful consideration."
Intestine quarrels on this subject of polygamy and other causes brought on a crisis in affairs at Nauvoo, in 1844. The people in the neighborhood were jealous of the rapidly-growing and flourishing city; they complained that their property disappeared mysteriously, and that law cases tied in Nauvoo courts were always decided against them. No Mormon, they affirmed, was brought to justice. It was widely reported that the Mormons desired to rule the State, and intended to set all laws at defiance. A number of talented and influential persons who had become residents of Nauvoo, finding themselves deluded as the sanctity of the Prophet and in the advancement of their temporal affairs, deserted his standard,
denouncing him for licentiousness, drunkenness, and boastful tyranny.
Smith justified his inebriation by the assertion that it was necessary for him to be seen in that condition to prevent his followers from worshipping him as a God. Women accused him of attempted seduction, and he replied that he made such attempts ''to learn if they were virtuous."
The Prophet's newspaper, the Wasp, lashed these dissenters with the bitterest sarcasm and hatred, to which they replied in the Expositor, one number of which was entirely devoted to a relation of the horrible immoralities of Joseph Smith and his intimate associates.
A city council was called, and eleven members of the twelve voted the Expositor a nuisance. Mrs. Foster, wife of Dr. Foster, the editor of this organ, was one of the women who had denounced the Prophet as having made improper proposals to her, and it was said that she wrote the first paper calling attention to the iniquities of the Saints in respect to "spiritual wifery" William Law was the associate editor of the Expositor.
Smith and his followers attacked the building where it was printed, destroying the presses and all its contents. Foster and Law fled to Carthage, the county seat, got out warrants against Smith and his brother Hyrum and sixteen of their intimates. A constable who served these warrants was driven out of Nauvoo. This act fired the smouldering hatred of the Illinoisians into terrible activity, and a dark day was lowering over the fate of the Saints. The country authorities called out the militia to enforce the law.
The charter of Nauvoo had been so cunningly devised that the State authorities were almost excluded from jurisdiction within its limits.
The Mormons hastily armed themselves, and a civil war seemed impending when Governor Ford asked the two Smiths -- Joseph and Hyrum -- to surrender themselves and take their trial, as the best method of satisfying the existing turbulent parties.
In return, the Smiths sent two men to confer with him, and secretly crossed the Mississippi River into Iowa to watch the course of events, keeping up a correspondence with the council, which, finding their own people incensed by the desertion of their president, military commander, etc., begged the Smiths to obey the summons of the governor, they (the members of the council) and all their friends feeling sure of an acquittal on trial.
Following this advice, they returned to Nauvoo and started for Carthage, but were met by an officer with an order to disband the legion and deliver up the State arms. The Smiths accompanied this officer, who had some troops with him, and the order was duly executed. The two brothers were then conducted to Carthage, with Dr. Richards, John Taylor, and others, were indicted for treason, and lodged in jail.
The dissenting Mormons and all who had suffered injustice and loss of property from the Smiths now swore dire vengeance against the prisoners; but the governor, after discharging the troops, went to Nauvoo and addressed the people, advising them to submit to the laws and conduct themselves as good citizens, promising justice to all parties.
On the 27th of June, 1844, lie started to return to Carthage, when he met a messenger who informed him that a horrible massacre of the Smiths had been committed by an infuriated mob.
The governor, fearing a retaliation from the Mormons on the inhabitants of Carthage, advised them to evacuate
Nauvoo, and placed General Deming, with the few troops that could be raised, and himself retired to Quincy to await events. It appears that while the governor was absent from Carthage, and the troops were disbanded, a number of excited and bloodthirsty individuals took matters into their own hands, decided to administer justice after their own fashion, and attacked the jail very early in the morning, breaking down the door of the room where the prisoners were confined.
The Smiths were very brave, and defended themselves as long as their ammunition held out, firing their revolvers in rapid succession. Hyrum was shot first, and then Joseph threw open the window, and in the act of heaping out was killed by the bullets fired by the mob, saying, as he fell, "O Lord, my God !"
Taylor was wounded, and Dr. Richards, in the confusion, managed to escape. This John Taylor, at present at the head of the Mormon Church at Utah, is the one mentioned as being in jail at Carthage with the Smiths, and who came so near sharing their fate.
The murder of their Prophet exasperated the Mormons at Nauvoo, and they determined on a "war to the knife" with all who had participated in that tragedy.
The more sagacious ones, however, perceived that it would be unwise to pursue such a course, and began very skillfully to prevent the entire ruin of their future hopes. They addressed the infuriated citizens, with clubs in their hands, while a great drum was meanwhile beating to arms. It was a fearful struggle. Revenge was deep, and curses were poured out on the Gentiles, and "the time to fight" most of them supposed had arrived; but the leaders made delays, and surrendered their arms.
They talked of a new organization and new leaders, and so the day passed, and wrath was kept for a more
propitious season. The following morning the people collected in Temple Square. The apostles promised "the vengeance of heaven" on their enemies when the time was ripe for the vials of wrath to be poured on them, by patience, fire, and sword.
Next, the funeral pageant was of absorbing interest, for the mourning was sore, sad, and deep over "the beloved patriarch and the adored Prophet Joseph."
They were called " martyrs for their faith and triumphant in glory." The bodies of the Smiths were buried in the cellar of Joseph's house, although the ceremony of burying their empty coffins was performed at the grave. Joseph Smith's death by the violence of his enemies was opportune for the support of the system he sought to establish, as he had arrived at a point where the least delay would have made its waves overflow and engulf him.
He had lived long enough for his fame, and died when he could be called a martyr. It has been said of him that "he could begin but not conduct a revolution." He had become too impatient to manage a multitude, and save for his death at the time, and in this violent manner, the internal convulsions in the faith might have extinguished Mormonism.
One version of the return of the Smith brothers from Iowa to surrender themselves to the authorities at Carthage is, that they had started ''to seek out a new home" in some isolated place in the Rocky Mountains for the people, of which Joseph saw the necessity, when a letter from his wife, Emma, overtook him, persuading him to come back; and in obeying it he made the fatal mistake which cost his life.
It is now believed on good authority that it was " this specious letter" of his wife's, rather than the governor's
wish, which induced him to act against his better judgment, and flee from the Gentiles. She wrote to him reproachfully for his cowardice, denounced him as an impostor, and asked him to give proof of his mission by facing the enemies of the church.
It was the Missourians -- who had never forgiven the Mormons -- who were mainly instrumental in inciting the mob at Carthage to murder the Smiths. Even their enemies acknowledged that they died manfully. Joseph was heroic in a sense rarely allied to meanness; yet every act of his life and all the circumstances of his death attest the cheat; still he was of no ignoble order.
A few months before the Prophet's death Professor Turner, of Jacksonville, Ill., saw him at Nauvoo, and thus described his personal appearance:
"He is a curious mixture of the clown and the knave; his hands are large and awkward, and he wears a massive gold ring on one of his fingers. He has a downcast look, and nothing of that straightforward appearance that characterizes the honest man. His language is uncouth and ungrammatical."
But this description of the Prophet's appearance is contradicted by other testimony, quite as reliable; and whatever he may have been from the commencement of his pretended mission to time of his death, the mass of Mormons have been satisfied with him. His personal beauty and magnetism, it is said, controlled those who were about him. He made them believe he could work miracles, cast out devils; that angels visited him; that he had revelations, trances, and was the chosen Prophet of the "Latter-Day Saints." In one year he had thirty-seven revelations, which he said were from Jesus Christ. He began all his addresses with "thus saith the Lord."
The New Jerusalem was ever in his mind and conversation;
but where it was to be he did not discover. His associations were such as made him acquainted with the weak side of humanity, and he early saw that numbers were more convincing to the masses than intellectual attainments in point of religious influence. His "mission" grew with his years and his success, and he had far more power over the destinies of Mormonism than the "Book of Mormon" itself.
During His life he had an unquestioned influence over his wife Emma; she assisted him in every way to delude the credulous and unscrupulous; but a few years after his death she published a statement in the Quincy (Ill.) Whig to the effect that she had no belief in Smith's prophetic capacity, and considered his pretended revelations as the emanations of a diseased mind. The following extract, from a criticism of books on Mormonism, is pertinent to the foregoing chapter. Author. unknown. Date, January, 1880:
This ridiculous proposition to establish a Territorial Government within the bounds of a State has underlying it a desperate expedient to save Joe's neck from the halter which it richly deserved. Orrin Porter Rockwell, church murderer, then new to the business, but now the retired hero of a hundred murders, had been sent by Joe over to Missouri to assassinate Governor Boggs. "Port," as he is affectionately called at Salt Lake, shot the governor in the head, but, as he was comparatively inexperienced, did not kill him, On the 5th of June preceding the date of this petition, an indictment against Joe and Port was found in Missouri, and on the 7th Governor Ford issued a warrant for Joe's arrest, and surrendered him to a Missouri officer. He was rescued by the Mormons, taken on a writ of habeas corpus before the Nauvoo Municipal Court (!), and, of course, discharged. Governor Ford had been urged to call out the militia to aid in Joe's rendition, and in the petition it is proposed that the Mayor of Nauvoo (Joe) shall have the power "to call to his aid a sufficient number of United States forces, in connection with the Nauvoo Legion, to repel the invasion of mobs, keep the public peace, and protect the innocent from the unhallowed ravages of lawless bandit that escape
justice on the Western frontier; and also to preserve the power and dignity of the Union. And be it further ordained that the officers of the United States Army are hereby required to obey the requisitions of this ordinance." Joe did not get his Territorial Government, but the Illinois election was about to take place, and having three thousand votes to trade on, he was allowed to run at large a few months longer, until he was killed. If he had been taken over to Missouri, and given a fair trial, he might have saved his life by going to State's prison. "Port" was tried, but being advised in better season than Mr. Pickwick, proved "an alibi," and is still an ornament to Salt Lake society and a shining light in the Mormon Church.
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Sidney Rigdon had already assumed the role of chief functionary as of right, and had a "revelation" on this subject. He had strong claims to sustain this assumption of power. He had originated Mormonism, and had very important secrets in his custody; but he miscalculated his influence. He was unpopular, was distrusted, and it was known that Joseph had long kept him at arm's length, fearing to quarrel with him. Rigdon said his new "revelation" commanded the "saints" to go to Pittsburg, Pa., and this contradicted all that Joseph bad received, which indicated that Jackson Co., Missouri, was positively to be their final home.
Ten weeks after the removal of the Prophet, Rigdon was called before the high quorum of the priesthood to answer for his misdeeds. He refused to appear. Brigham Young was in Boston, Mass., engaged in mission work, when he heard of the death of the Smiths, and hastened to Nauvoo as rapidly as possible after the news reached him, convinced of his right to govern the people.
Next to Joseph Smith, Brigham Young was the ablest man in certain ways who has been brought into prominence by the Mormon delusion. The two men had much in common, and each had a keen perception of the character of the other. Brigham was born in Vermont, in 1801, and removed at an early age to Livingston Co., N. Y., where he was a field-laborer. Later he was a house-painter at Canadaigua, N. Y. He joined the Mormons in 1832, at Kirtland, where his natural shrewdness and quickness were immediately recognized.
As one of the "Twelve Apostles" he soon became famous as a successful preacher, and Smith, with prophetic vision, in acknowledging Young's qualities as a ruler, remarked: "If Brigham has a chance he will lead the Mormons to hell. "At Nauvoo, however, he saved them from destruction. He saw his opportunity, and had the wit and the nerve to embrace it. His first movement in this emergency was to make a public address accusing Rigdon of "manufacturing revelations," as having a "spirit as corrupt as the devil," and declaring his mind was enveloped in darkness, and that he sowed dissensions in the church.
The following portion of this address is curious as tending to prove Rigdon's complicity in the original fraud by which the "Book of Mormon" was palmed off on the credulous as a divine revelation -- to wit:
"Brother Sidney says he will tell our secrets; but, if he tells them, we will tell his. Tit for tat. If there is so much iniquity in our church, he is a black-hearted wretch not to have told it long ago;" and Young concluded with saying that Rigdon was the prime cause of all the troubles the Saints had had in Missouri and Illinois, and to retain him in the church was to bring
utter destruction upon it. A few voices were eloquent in Rigdon's favor -- ten in number; but the majority ruled, and Young delivered him over to the "buffetings of the devil for a thousand years in the home of the Lord." His ten friends were also suspended from their fellowship with the church.
Rigdon never sought to re-enter the church, and, what was far more important to the Mormons, lie never told their secrets. He left Nauvoo immediately. Three other Mormons desired "the mantle of the Prophet" -- Lyman White, William Smith, and Strang -- all of whom were excommunicated. Each had his followers. Strang founded a city on the prairies of Wisconsin, where he had a large colony, which ultimately removed to Beaver Island, Lake Michigan, and assumed the title of " king."
Brigham was now triumphant; the same assembly which had rejected Rigdon elected him "First President," and invested him with the " keys." He at once issued a "circular letter" to the Saints, giving his views on the situation. It was calm, hopeful, practical, and got up in a masterly style; but his pacific advice could not heal matters with the "Gentiles," and he gave out that the Mormons must leave Illinois.
The charter of Nauvoo was repealed by the Legislature of the State in 1845. In the midst of these stirring and exciting scenes the Mormons gave a curious exhibition of their faith in Joseph Smith. He had predicted the completion of the temple, and Brigham commanded them to remain in Nauvoo in order to fulfill the "revelation" of the Prophet.
Unheard-of exertions were made to carry out this command, and the temple was finished to its minutest ornamentation. When it was ready the Mormons flocked into the city from every quarter, and there was great
rejoicing over the consecration of "the Pride of the Valley," as they called it.
The interior was elaborately decorated with festoons and wreaths of flowers, and symbolic glories "celestial, telestial, and terrestrial;" chants were sung, prayers offered, and lamps and torches lighted to make it resplendent. This done, the walls were dismantled, the ornaments taken down, and the symbols of their faith removed to leave the noble building "to be trodden down and profaned by the Gentiles."
From this time the enemies of the Mormons believed in their promised evacuation of the city. A venerable uncle of Joseph's declared that he had been told in a prophetic vision that "the whole people must retire into the wilderness to grow into a multitude, aloof from the haunts of civilization."
Brigham Young and the Council took this matter into consideration. The result was, that they decided to move as rapidly as possible across Iowa to the Missouri, into the Indian country near Council Bluffs. It is stated that hostilities had been mutually suspended between the Mormons and their enemies, the State Government having promised its protection to the "Saints" until they could dispose of their property. The exodus had been delayed to finish the temple, and the mobocratic spirit of the Illinoisians and Missourians was again aroused.
THE EXODUS FROM NAUVOO.In the winter of 1846 the Mormons commenced to leave the city. An indescribable pageant of ox-carts and mule teams, loaded with women, children, and all sorts of furniture, passed out from Nauvoo to the miry
tracks of the prairies; but the spirits of all, save the sick and the helpless, were unbroken. Brigham superintended every detail of this evacuation of Nauvoo. He arranged that the population should leave in companies as carefully selected and as well ordered as the situation allowed. In spite of this preparation there was a report that the Mormons really intended to remain, as their progress was so tardy to the impatient Illinoisians; and in violation of all promises and State faith they called out the militia and drove the defenseless residents from their homes at the point of the bayonet, after bombarding the city for three days and nights.
This was in September of 1846. The militia seems to have been a rabble of two thousand men, who gathered to fight less than three thousand of the old Nauvoo Legion. While this barbaric war was being conducted against those who had been left in the city (the most helpless and defenseless) Brigham was leading his companies across the prairies to Council Bluffs, Iowa, which had been selected as a temporary halting-place, where the Mormons could recuperate their energies and prepare for a more extended pilgrimage.
Men and women had been sent forward, through Brigham's foresight, to plant crops by the wayside for those who should follow to gather; but there was terrible suffering and much sickness among these bands, who toiled onward, obedient to their leader's dictation.
The following description of the city of Nauvoo, immediately after the Mormons were driven from it by their foes, was written by Colonel Kane, of the United States Army (a brother of Kane the Arctic explorer), who afterward made the journey from Council Bluffs to Utah in company with the Mormons, and wrote an account of it. From this time Colonel Kane's sympathies
were deeply enlisted in behalf of the Mormons, as will be further seen.
"Ascending the upper Mississippi in the autumn (1846), when its waters were low, I was obliged to travel by land past the region of the rapids. I had left the steamer at Keokuk, at the foot of the lower fall, and hired a carriage to where the deep water of the river returns. I was descending the last hillside upon my journey, when a charming landscape broke upon my view. Half encircled by a bend in the river, a beautiful city lay glittering in the morning sun. Its bright new buildings were set in cool green gardens, ranging up around a stately, dome-shaped hill, which was crowned by a noble marble edifice, whose high, tapering spire was radiant with white and gold.
"The city appeared to cover several miles, and behind it in the background there rolled off a fair country, checkered by the careful lines of industry, enterprise, and educated wealth; everywhere the scene was one of singular and most striking beauty.
"It was natural to visit this interesting region. I was rowed across the river, landing at the chief wharf of the city. No one met me there. I looked and saw no one. I could hear no one. It was quiet everywhere, save for the buzzing of the flies and the water-ripples on the shallow of the beach. The town lay in a dream, under some deadening spell of loneliness, from which I almost feared to waken it, for plainly it had not slept long. There was no grass growing up in the paved ways; rain had not entirely washed out the prints of dusty footsteps; yet I went about unchecked into empty work-shops, rope-walks, and smithies. The spinner's wheel was idle, shavings were on the carpenter's work-bench, fresh bark was in the tanner's vat, light wood stood piled
against the baker's oven. No work-people looked to learn my errand. I went into gardens, clinking the latch loudly after me, to pull the marigolds, heartsease, and lady-slippers; drank from a well with a noisy chain, but no one called out to me from the windows or dog came forward to bark an alarm. The house-doors were all unfastened, and when at last I timidly entered them, I found dead ashes white upon the hearths, and awoke irreverent echoes by walking over the naked floors. On the outside of the town was the city graveyard, but there was no record of a plague. Some of the stones were newly set, and their dates recent. Beyond the grave-yard, out in the fields, I saw where the fruited boughs of a young orchard had been torn down, and noticed the still smouldering remains of a barbecue fire, which had been made from the fence-rails that surrounded it. It was the latest sign of life there; fields upon fields of yellow grain lay rotting around.
"Only two portions of the city seemed to suggest the import of this mysterious solitude. In the southern suburb the houses looking out upon the country showed, by their splintered woodwork and walls battered to their foundations, that they had lately been the mark of a destructive cannonading. In and around the splendid temple, which had been the chief object of my admiration, armed men were barracked with their stacks of musketry and pieces of heavy ordnance. These challenged me, and wondered I had had the temerity to cross the river without a written order from their leader. They told me the story of the dead city; that it had been a great manufacturing and commercial mart, sheltering over twenty thousand persons; that they had waged war for several years with its inhabitants, and had only lately been successful in driving them away at the
point of the sword. They boasted of their powers in the three days' battle, and of their exploits; told how they killed a boy of fifteen and his father, who had just become residents, and whom they admitted were without reproach. They conducted me to the sculptured walls of the curious temple, where they said the banished inhabitants had been accustomed to celebrate the mystic rites of an unhallowed worship, and pointed out certain features of the building which they had sedulously destroyed as having been peculiar objects of a former superstitious regard. There was a deep well in one of the chambers, which they said had been constructed with some dreadful design; and they told me romantic stories of a great marble basin supported by twelve oxen the size of life. They said, 'here parents went into the water for their lost children, and children for their parents;' 'widows for their spouses, and young persons for their lovers;' and thus 'the great vase' was associated to them with tender memories, and was the object of all others in the building of the most idolatrous affection. They permitted me to ascend to the steeple to see where it had been struck by lightning the Sunday previous, and to look out east and west on wasted farms, like the one mentioned, extending until they were lost in the distance.
"It was nightfall when I crossed the river on my return. The water was rough, so I made for a point higher up, landing where a faint glimmering light invited me to steer. Here among the rushes, sheltered only by the darkness, were several hundred human creatures in an uneasy slumber on the ground. My movements roused them. Dreadful indeed were the sufferings of these forsaken beings, bowed and cramped by the cold and sunburn alternating, as each weary day and
night dragged on. Almost all of them were the crippled victims of disease, They were there because they had no homes, nor hospital, nor poorhouse, nor friend to offer them any. They were all alike bivouacked in tatters. These were Mormons turned out of Nauvoo, too poor, too ill, to follow their more fortunate companions, who were en route for Council Bluffs. There were six hundred and forty persons thus lying on the Iowa flats opposite Nauvoo, and the last who were turned out of it."
Mrs. Emma Smith, the true wife of the first Mormon Prophet, with her children and several of the elder members of the numerous Smith family who had followed the fortunes of Joseph to Nauvoo, did not leave the neighborhood of the city to go west with the other Mormons under the leadership of Brigham Young. Mrs. Smith afterward married Major L. C. Bidamon, and died a few years ago.
The temple, after being partially destroyed by the militia in 1846, 'was burned in 1848. Two years later it was partly rebuilt by the French Icarrians (brought to Nauvoo by Monsieur Cabet, the Socialist) for their own use; but a terrible tornado in 1850 threw most of the splendid edifice to the ground. The rise, progress, and destruction of Nauvoo occupied seven years. Its history is as wonderful as that of any city ever built, and many of its mysteries have yet to be told.
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We have also seen that, owing to his persuasive eloquence, Rigdon had beem sent adrift, and that he had commanded that the temple should be completed, as he said, to fulfil Joseph Smith's "revelation" to that effect, but probably to make plans for the future welfare of the Saints. Seeing that their position was fraught with dangers of both a seen and unseen character, he determined that it must be changed -- in short, that his followers must seek "pastures new," find fresh surroundings and possibilities somewhere. Meanwhile he announced to his people that they must be ready to
* In continuation of the history of the wanderings of the Saints from Kirtland to Deseret, and the events following in their career up to the present time, the most reliable authorities upon this subject have been carefully consulted.
sacrifice their all whenever he called upon them to do so. They wept and hesitated; but his authority prevented further expressions of regret, as they were bound to him by oaths which they shuddered to remember and which yet made them love him all the more as their president, brother, and spiritual adviser. Agents were sent by him to explore the Western Territories. Their glowing accounts of Utah, both for its great natural resources and beauty, induced him to select that locality as the future residence of the Mormons. Besides, Utah at the time belonged to Mexico; it was beyond the control of the detested Stars and Stripes and the uncomfortable people who had thrice expelled "the chosen" ones from their resting-places. He made his purpose known to those nearest to him in office, but the common herd were merely informed that their destination was to be somewhere in the Rocky Mountains, and that they were to move on in that direction as far as Council Bluffs that season. This new exodus began in February, 1846, the bleakest and coldest month of the year in that section of the country. Here Brigham Young proved himself a general, as well as commander. He directed everything, and as the long trains of wagons, filled with the Saints and such of their household effects as they could carry, passed by him and crossed the "Father of Waters," he comforted and inspired and counseled the weeping emigrants. Certain men were left behind at his desire to sell the property of the church and then shake off the very dust of that unfortunate locality.
This journey proved to be one of intense suffering. Many of the wretched wanderers fell ill and perished by the way, and the survivors gladly received the command to make Council Bluffs a temporary abode for rest and recuperation. The church was reorganized on the arrival
of the advanced company of the Saints, as they had moved in sections and not in one solid body, probably so as not to disturb the inhabitants of the sparsely populated country with their numbers. Some of the historians of Mormonism have asserted that when the Mormons left Nauvoo they intended to go no farther than Council Bluffs; but there is very strong evidence that Brigham Young had fully laid his plans to make Utah his future scene of action and rule before be crossed the Mississippi. So far on the route, he must make plans for the completion of the journey. The obstacles in the way of this intention would have intimidated a less courageous man. There was still over one thousand miles to traverse through an almost unknown country. If it was difficult to transport armed troops through the wilderness, what skill and energy must it not have required to send a nearly unprovided-for, feeble, and impoverished company of men, women, and little children such a distance! But his wisdom and forethought controlled the whole matter.
An event in our national history, the war between the United States and Mexico, was imminent, He had [had] prepared inklings of it; he hoped for it, and was to take advantage of it. His followers could wait a little longer before making as he believed, their last "hegira" to a land flowing with milk and honey. The government had offered large bounty money to all who would enlist in the army.
The Mormons took advantage of this offer, and, concealing their real design under a sham patriotism, sent an agent to Washington asking that they should be permitted to form aim organization to fight the common enemy. The government approved, or, at all events, allowed this scheme to be carried out, and in this way
money was furnished which assisted the emigrants to cross the plains toward Utah. July 24th, 1847, one hundred and forty-three men, pioneers, entered Salt Lake Valley accompanied by Brigham Young. Five days later a portion of the "Mormon Battalion" enlisted under the call for troops for Mexico -- about one hundred and fifty men -- under Captain Brown, who had arrived escorting a company of emigrants, gathered from various quarters in the East and the Old World. The men belonging to these two companies, at Young's command, had left their families at Council Bluffs.
From Fremont's reports of Utah, we learn that Salt Lake City was at this time already laid out. The men, under Captain Brown's command were sent on to join General Scott's army, while the others commenced improvements for domestic comfort, farming operations in the vicinity, etc., and preparing for the residence of the Saints, who were still at Council Bluffs in sickness, poverty, and discontent. Getting matters into material shape, Brigham returned to Iowa, where his presence seemed to inspire the waiting Mormons.
In the spring of 1848 the Mormons, a company of nineteen hundred men, women, and children, started from Council Bluffs for Salt Lake. Colonel Kane's description of this journey has all the interest of a romance. The distance was enormous, the perils of the way great, and the zeal of the travelers and their courage under difficulties, sufficient to try the stoutest hearts, were only equaled by their faith. "It was a pilgrimage which has not been paralleled in the history of mankind since Moses led the Israelites from Egypt," wrote the enthusiastic Kane. They had sickness, weariness, skirmishes with the Indians, and they also had their pleasures and rewards in this extraordinary journey of several
months. They were surprised by beautiful scenery, and they languished over dreary wastes. Brigham told them stories, encouraged dancing to make them merry and had theatrical performances to distract their attention. It was their custom, whenever the camp rested for a few days together, to make great arbors, or "bowries," as they were called, for meetings of devotion, conference, and when the ground was trodden firm as places for conviviality. Colonel Kane's account of a Mormon ball in the wilderness is graphic. "If anything told the Mormons had been bred to other lives, it was the appearance of the women as they assembled here, " he wrote. Before their flight they had sold their trinkets to raise ready money. The men wore waistcoats with useless watch-pockets, and the ears of the women bore the loop-marks of rejected pendants. Otherwise they lacked nothing becoming decorous maidens and matrons. The gravest and most trouble-worn of the company seemed the most anxious to throw off the burden of heavy thoughts. To the combination of violins, sleigh-bells, horns, and tambourines did they trip "the light fantastic toe." French fours, Copenhagen jigs, Virginia reels, and other figures were executed with the spirit of people too happy to be slow, or bashful, or constrained, from an early hour until the sun had gone down behind the sharp sky line of the mountains. Children were born, and numbers died and were buried on the route, but they pressed on, under their header's direction, for the new home beyond the States and their enemies, arriving at Deseret, "the Land of the Honey-Bee," in the autumn of 1848. And now lands were surveyed and placed under careful cultivation, and Salt Lake City was made habitable; and then followed an era of enterprise and success that was as wonderful as it was unprecedented and contradictory.
Settlements were established in every direction, the soil was subdued and irrigated for cultivation, and the people built the city and the temple, and established mills, and workshops, and numerous industries, under the personal directions of the ever-watchful bishops. Missionary corps were newly organized for foreign lands, and an Immigration Fund established, which soon resulted in a swarming influx to Utah from all parts of Europe.
This "Immigration Fund" supplied the new converts -- mainly from the working classes -- from the time they left their homes until they reached some little farm in Utah, to which each person or family was assigned, and was under a regularly-organized police government, by which the percentage of casualties and cost of transportation were greatly lessened. The same system of bringing Mormon emigrants to Utah is in use at the present time.
As early as March, 1849, a convention, or "conference," was held at Salt Lake City for the organization of a State, which was accomplished under the name of "Deseret."
Congress refused to accept the constitution which was adopted, but elected the country into a Territory in the following September, and President Fillmore appointed Brigham Young its governor.
But troubles still followed the career of the Mormons. The judges appointed by the President for the new territory were driven out of Deseret by the "Prophet" governor. Colonel Steptoe, of the United States Army, was sent by the President to occupy Brigham's place. He arrived in Utah with his command in August, 1854, but he found the Mormons so numerous and so belligerent, and his military escort was so small, that he deemed
it prudent not to assume the functions of his office; and after wintering there went to California with his troops.
The effect of this retirement of the troops was most unfortunate. From that day the Mormon "Prophet" successfully defied the government and outwitted the Federal authorities.
After Colonel Steptoe's departure, Brigham said, in a sermon to his people: "I am and will be governor, and no power can hinder it until the Lord Almighty says 'Brigham, you need not be governor any longer.'" Everything from that time seemed to consolidate his power.
In February, 1856, Judge Drummond, of the United States District Court, was driven from his bench by an armed Mormon mob, and he was forced to adjourn his court, and all the United States Army officers, except the Indian agents, were obliged, by the terrible condition of affairs, to leave the country.
The Mormons endeavored to justify their treatment of the Federal officers by alleging that many of them were disreputable and profligate -- statements that have a foundation in truth. in 1857 Alfred Cumming, of Missouri, was appointed Governor of Utah by President Buchanan. At the same time Judge Eckels, of Indiana, was made Chief-Justice of the territory. Colonel S. A. Johnson, with a body of twenty-five hundred United States troops was sent to protect them and enforce the laws. The Mormons were greatly excited over the approach of the troops, and Brigham Young, in his capacity as governor, issued a proclamation denouncing the army as a mob, forbidding it to enter the territory, and called upon the people of Utah to arms to repel its advance. It was September when the army reached the confines of Utah, and, owing to delays, was overtaken by
the snows of winter. A party of mounted Mormons, on October 5th, destroyed several supply trains, captured eight hundred oxen, and drove them into Salt Lake City. The army went into winter quarters at Fort Bridger, where it suffered greatly. Their expedition had been fitted out with great care, and cost our government $14,000,000. October 27th Governor Cumming issued his war proclamation, declaring the Territory to be in a state of rebellion. Colonel Kane, who had been with the Mormons during their last exodus, and seems to have been at this time very much their friend and confidant (if not convert), arrived at Salt Lake in 1858 with letters from President Buchanan, and succeeded in bringing the hostile "Saints" and the governor sent to subdue them into relations of harmony.
He was quickly followed by two peace commissioners "offering pardon to all Mormons who would submit to Federal authority." This "offer of pardon" was carried by Governor Powell, of Kentucky, and Major McCullough, of Texas. The conditions were, accepted by the heads of the church. With a becoming consideration for this subdued people, the army was stationed forty miles from Salt Lake City, where it remained until the spring of 1860, and was then withdrawn.
The Mormons were now exultant and hopeful. They trusted in their prophet, and echoed his boastful assertions that "nothing could harm them." He had exhibited a rare union of reckless daring within the subtlest prudence, recognizing a point beyond which he could not go, which Joseph always failed to do; and though lacking the lion-like personal courage of the first Prophet, he was more than his equal in moral heroism, and the mysterious control he exercised over his people. During the war for time suppression of the great rebellion
the Mormons were in a measure forgotten and over-looked; but since that time public attention, through the facilities of travel, has been continuously turned in that direction. The Pacific Railway has brought Utah in close relations with the Eastern States. The isolation of the "Saints" is again disturbed by tourists, many of them distinguished travellers, who have investigated the exceptional social system of this people through the forbearance of their leaders.
On the 5th of October, 1869, Vice-President Colfax, at the time a visitor at Salt Lake City, was invited to make a speech from the portico of the Townsend House. He embraced the opportunity to tell the Mormons his opinion of polygamy in a bold and fearless way. "It seemed to break the spell of the Prophet's authority," and the wildest excitement ensued among his People. The Schismatics, under the leadership of one Harrison, established a paper called the Mormon Tribune, and organized a liberal movement. They and all the disaffected were cut off from the church.
On the other hand, Brigham and the leading magnates stood their ground firmly. John Taylor (the present high priest, ruler, and president of the Mormons), the leading mind and the best writer among them, answered Mr. Colfax by a letter in the New York Tribune of November 19th, 1869, in which he very cleverly disputed all his arguments and most of the assertions he had made at Salt Lake City.
The Tribune of the Schismatics was hopefully received by certain people in Utah, as it professed to aim to break down bigotry and fanaticism, to foster ideas in harmony with the age, and to be in direct opposition to polygamy; but the attempt to bring Mormonism into agreement and adjustment with the accepted standards of the civilized
world as to right and wrong soon grew to be an absurdity.
New "revelations" were announced by these opposers of the Prophet, but their publication made no difference in the general estimate of the situation of affairs. in 1870 Miss Anna Dickinson made the following statements concerning Brigham Young, in her popular lecture entitled "Whited Sepulchres:"
All this vast machinery is controlled by a single mind; he is the fourth largest depositor in the Bank of England; he controls the largest emigration fund in the world, whose emissaries appeal to the poor, and homeless, and destitute, and ignorant, and misguided of all lands, with the offer of a home, and a free passage to it, etc. Yet he it was who, through his trained assassins disguised as Indians, committed the Mountain Meadow massacre, and by whose order William Hickman committed over four hundred murders in Utah.
Brigham Young was treated with the consideration of a "political offender," and while the people of the United States organized powerful agencies for the conversion of the heathen abroad, it is justly said we neglect to interpose an enlightened Christianity in behalf of the victims of Mormonism.
Of the many items of interest concerning the second " Prophet," the following is given by an English writer on Mormonism:
Brigham Young was sent with others to England to preach the Gospel. They landed at Liverpool, April 6th, 1840, partook of the sacrament, and commenced preaching. They were penniless, and dependent on their enemies for support -- which at first was small -- and Brigham suffered much and often. He superintended affairs, issued an edition of the 'Book of Mormon,' inaugurated the publication of the 'Millennial Star,' and on April 30th, 1841, shipped seven hundred and sixty-nine converts to Nauvoo, sailing himself with them, and leaving many Mormon organizations and churches well established behind him.
This was but one of his many "missions," all of which seem to have been successful
The anniversary of the day on which Brigham Young (with the heads of the church) arrived at Salt Lake City is still observed and celebrated; hence the 24th of July is the great national day with the Mormons, instead of the 4th of July.
The second Prophet inaugurated a military corps known as "Minute Men," which was quite distinct from the "Danites." It was a well-drilled company of armed men, taking the character of a militia held in reserve for general defence. The Danites were also well organized, in a military point of view, with habits of undying watchfulness and hardy enterprise, acquired by a long experience of continued conflict with the Gentiles. Ever on their guard, skilled in all the arts of wood-craft, able to read as on a printed page upon the desert -- by which many of their homes were surrounded-those signs which to inexperienced eyes would pass unnoticed, j familiar with the laws of life and climate which characterize their country, and thus enabled to turn all to their own advantage as against strangers, and, more than all, familiar With the wild passes and deep mountain gorges through which all approach at that time could be made, they seem to have been in possession of many elements of strength to use for their own ends and in self-defence. Some of the most horrible deeds of violence against the enemies of Mormonism in Illinois, Missouri, and Utah have been committed by this "band." It is denied by the Saints at the present time that such an organization now exists, if it ever existed; but the truth in this matter is too fully established to admit of a doubt as to the past, and there is every reason to believe that any unusual hostility shown to the Mormons by individuals or the Government would prove that the "Danites" are not all dead.
Mormonism in Utah has always been associated with the Mountain Meadow Massacre, the most shocking event in its history. The following brief account of this horror has been taken from the most reliable sources extant.
In the year 1857 there were two trains of emigrants crossing the plains, with the intention of going to Southern California -- one from Missouri and one from Arkansas. The former was made up of men who called themselves "Missouri Wild Cats;" the other a company of highly respectable persons, who had many indications of wealth and ease, that were seeking a new home. They travelled leisurely through the week and rested on Sundays. There were men, women, and children of every age among them, and many families related to each other by the ties of consanguinity and marriage. They were generally Methodists, and had morning and evening prayers.
The "Wild Cats" contracted a high respect for them, and came as near them in travelling as the methods of the camp at night would allow. Like all other pilgrims of the time toward "the golden Pacific coast, "the emigrants counted upon recruiting at Salt Lake City, while camping by the side of the river Jordan. Ordinarily the Mormons were glad to see the arrival of Gentile emigrants en route for the far West, as it gave occasion for trade and barter; but certain events had changed the spirit of the people. Federal troops were then advancing toward Zion, and the Saints Were preparing for a defence of their homes. The Missouri company, it has been asserted, boasted on the way that they had helped to drive the Mormons from their State, and that they intended to further assist the approaching United States troops to "wipe out the Mormons."
The alleged animus against the other company was that Orley [sic] P. Pratt, the Mormon apostle, missionary, etc., had been recently shot in Arkansas by Hector McLean for an attempt to steal his children and send them to their mother in Utah, who years before had been converted to the Mormon faith in California, and had subsequently become one of the wives of Pratt. McLean was not arrested for this act, as Mormonism and the apostles were unpopular. Brigham Young, as Governor of Utah and a sworn officer of the United States, was in honor bound to protect these two companies of emigrants that were resting by the Jordan. Those from Arkansas were told to move on, and they took up their line of travel for Los Angeles. From this time they were made to suffer discomforts of many kinds by the way; the Mormons denied them provisions of every kind and food for their cattle. The Indians were their only friends, and sold them all the corn they had to spare. They halted at Cedar City one day, and then started on that fatal trip which soon came to a conclusion that has shocked the whole civilized world. The fourth day after the emigrants left Cedar City, a regiment of Mormon militia, under the command of Major John D. Lee, left that place in pursuit of them. This militia had the "make up" of a military force in the field, with the exception of artillery. Lee invited the Piede Indians to accompany him , and with these auxiliaries he had a force that could not he resisted by the poor hungry emigrants.
At Mountain Meadows the victims were overtaken. They had "rolled out" from camp ignorant of the danger which awaited them; and when fairly en route the Indians commenced firing upon them. The emigrants were taken completely by surprise. They had no
idea that the military expedition had been sent against them until they saw and felt it. They were not confused, however, but immediately corralled their wagons and prepared for defence, but were, alas! too far from water. For four days they fought the soldiers and Indians heroically. At the end of the second day Major Lee sent for re-enforcements, which arrived on the morning of the fourth day's fight. During the third day's battle it became a necessity with the emigrants to get water. It was in plain sight, but covered with the rifles of the troops. Hoping that the Mormons might have some pity on them, they dressed two little girls in white and sent them with a bucket in the direction of the spring. The soldiers shot them down! The morning of the fourth day Lee told the men under his command that his orders from headquarters were "to kill the entire company except the children." He sent a flag of truce to them, offering to them, if they would lay down their arms, to protect them. What could the men do but believe in this promise? They marched out of their little fort, laid down their arms, and marched up to the spring where Lee stood, and placed themselves under his protection. The line of march was then taken up, and after the distance of half a mile had been traversed Lee gave the command to halt ; then immediately the command to shoot them down. A long wail of agony from the surviving women and little ones who had followed their fathers, husbands, and brothers is beyond the powers of description, All the men had been slain. Another scene followed too revolting to be told, wherein these Mormon demons were allowed to commit the last outrage on these poor women. They were then killed, and the whole company stripped of their clothing and
left without burial. Seventeen children were saved , and afterward distributed in Mormon families. *
In 1859 General Carlton raised a cairn of stones over the bleached skeletons of the emigrants. On one of the stones lie caused to be written: "Here lie the bones of
* An Englishman, who, while still very young, married a Mormon woman, but was not himself a convert to the faith, has related to his son the incidents of a journey he made from Utah to California the year after the horrible butchery of the emigrants at Mountain Meadow. He saw the skeletons of some of the victims, and a fine gold watch which had been found close to this locality, and from certain marks was known to have belonged to some one of them. Farther on in this journey he visited a village where some children of the emigrants were housed by different Mormon families. Only one of them was old enough to remember and tell of the story of the massacre. The fate of that child is uncertain, but the others were sent to their relatives in the East for adoption. One of that fated band who were en route for California escaped, and, as Mr. ------- relates, reached a settlement beyond Utah, where he believed he was in safety ; but the Indian savages employed by the Mormons in the fiendish work hunted him down, caught him unaware, and actually filled his body with arrows.
An English lady who has visited Utah during her travels in America is responsible for the following story. She says it was related to her by a missionary teacher to whom the experience occurred, in Utah. The lady teacher asked a neighbor, a carpenter, to make some repairs to the schoolhouse. The work was accomplished at noon-time, while the children were away, and the man said one day: " believe you are a Christian, and I want to ask if you think I can be forgiven for helping in the Mountain Meadow Massacre? I want to tell you; it is on my mind all the time ; but if you betray me my life will be of no account." The teacher said she would not betray his confidence, and she believed, whatever his sins might be, they would be forgiven if he repented of them.
The carpenter then told her how a lovely, golden-haired little girl was sent to a spring for water that dreadful day, and that he was one of those commanded to shoot her down. That her look of entreaty was forever before his eyes -- and then the strong man wept at the remembrance, while making this confession, of a barbarity that he dared not refuse to accomplish
one hundred and twenty men, women, and children from Arkansas, murdered on the 10th day of September, 1857." Upon a cross-beam he caused to be painted: "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay it."
Brigham Young ordered this monument to be destroyed, and said the inscription should have read: "Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I have repaid it." John D. Lee was tried and executed by our Government for his part in the Mountain Meadow butchery. He was but the instrument of Brigham Young's hatred to McLean and the Gentiles generally, and was bound to carry out the malignant wishes of his leader, however willing or unwilling he may have been to do so. To Mormons freedom of thought is as impossible, it is said, as to idiots and to slaves. Elder W. C. Penrose, a church magnate, and editor, at the present time, of the Deseret News, the official church paper, has recently been giving, on successive Sunday evenings in Salt Lake City, some care-fully-prepared lectures on "Blood Atonement" and "Mountain Meadow Massacre" -- themes upon which hitherto a discreet silence has been kept, or, if alluded to, have been called "absurd Gentile lies" and "mere bugaboos." His line of defence (writes a correspondent of a Boston paper concerning the ruthless slaughter of the emigrants, is that they did evil things against the Indians of Southern Utah, and that three or four wicked bishops in those parts concluded not to let them escape from the Territory alive, but wrote to Brigham Young for advice, and then helped the redskins to cut their throats before the messenger returned. The Mormon monarch knew nothing of the shocking performance until some weeks later, and for thirteen years was duped into the belief that only Indians were concerned in it.
Alas for Penrose! the facts are against his theory. There is not a shadow of doubt that Brigham knew the whole story, and that for nineteen years he did his best to conceal the facts and shield the criminals from justice. "It is said that he gave Lee several new wives as a reward for conducting the massacre. The policy of the Mormons in regard to the Indians, whom they call "Lamenites," from the first has been to conciliate them in every way, that every tribe should be visited by their missionaries, to instruct them in their faith, and by inter-marriage and every other means to bring them under Mormon control. This influence has been used to prejudice the red men against the United States Government and to stir up the tribes to open hostilities toward unprotected settlements; and in cases of collision between the Mormons and United States troops to assist their professed friends, the Saints. The Danites and the Indians have been allies in ambush fights and murders of travellers through the Territories ; and in many horrible deeds of violence, where innocent men, women, and children on the frontiers have been slain by the red men, the incentive for vengeance has been given by Mormon agents. Men wise in the affairs of our nation and in the policy of the Mormon Church have predicted that if Uncle Sam ever rigidly attempts to abolish polygamy and to force the Saints into an outward show of morality, there will be serious trouble; that a civil war will eventuate, in which the "Lamenites" and the Mormons will act as a unit against the Gentiles. The Indians are commonly called " the Battle-axes of the Lord "throughout the Territory. They are a most degraded people, the Mormon missionaries having done little or nothing toward their civilization. Some of the terrible deeds attributed to the Lamenites have been committed
by Mormons painted and dressed as Indians, as the following extract will prove:
"I am in possession of the evidence that bands of these Salt Lake Mormons armed, dressed, and painted -- having the appearance of Indians -- are stationed on the way to California and Oregon, for the purpose of robbing the emigrants. Many murders and robberies have already been committed by these demons in human shape, which have been published to the world and attributed to the Indians... * WILLIAM SMITH.
William was the Prophet's brother, and wrote the above nearly eight years before the "Mountain Meadow Massacre."
* "Melchizedek and Aaronic Herald." By Isaac Sheen. Vol. I., No. 8. Covington, Ky., February, 1849.
Polygamy in Utah -- The Granting of Woman's Suffrage in 1871 -- The Edmunds' Bill -- Sketch of Brigham Young.
THE sons of Joseph Smith, the first Mormon Prophet, have denied that their father practised or approved of polygamy at any time in his career; but the evidence against such assertion is so strong and multiplied that we cannot fail to accept it. The best authorities upon this subject state that it was both preached and practised by Smith and his followers at Nauvoo, much to the horror and disgust of his first wife. Indeed, it was one of the sins of the Mormons at Nauvoo which their neighbors held in the greatest dislike, and which made up the sum total of a depravity which they determined to be rid of at any sacrifice. It was Brigham Young's policy immediately after the settlement of the Saints in Zion to have a "revelation" concerning polygamy, or "celestial marriage," for his people. He told them the "peculiar institution" should have the fulness of its glory in Utah, "where the faithful can sit under their own vine and fig-tree, none daring to make them afraid." Marriage was no longer a civil contract; it was to be a sacrament of the church and a second tenet of the faith. Nevertheless, Utah belonged to the United States, and it was
* Frequent quotations are made in this chapter from Mrs. Joseph Cook's "Face to Face with Mormonism," read before the Woman's Home Missionary meeting in Boston, March 27th, 1884, and Miss Kate Field's lecture entitled the "Mormon Monster," delivered in Boston, in the autumn of 1884.
uncertain what congress might wish to do with such a direct innovation upon Christianity. His mind grasped the conclusion that there was power in numbers. It would be difficult to deal with a whole people for an infraction of the law; he would make an ostentatious show of a plurality of wives, which should be a virtue and not an indiscretion. he made constant arguments in favor of polygamy in the Tabernacle in winter, and in the open-air places of worship in summer. He said the
world was rapidly hastening to a close, and there were multitudes of spirits in the other world waiting for honorable bodies, in which they could dwell in the flesh. The Gentiles were corrupt, and the ethereal spirits were waiting anxiously for the favors of the Mormons. This argument was considered lucid; it appealed to the grandest sentiment of humanity -- self-abnegation. The women would be selfish if they could not endure the wandering affections of their lords and masters. It was their duty to make a self-sacrifice! The greatest of all the human family had given His life to redeem; why could they not help to save?
From that time the women of Utah have not only made the sacrifice of the most vital principle of their souls, but have willingly or unwillingly submitted to a life of daily affliction for the sake of an article of faith.
An authority upon Mormonism has written: "Whoever has read debasement in the women of Utah has done them injustice. Some there be who are devoid of refined sentiment and the nobler instincts of their sex, but no women in history ever deserved more respect and sympathy than the true women among the "Mormons." They are taught to believe that polygamy is a divine institution, required in these latter days to regenerate and sanctify a world steeped in wickedness. They have
endured the most heartrending sorrows, while the men have been told that he is noblest who values the companionship of the soul the least, that his wife is but the mother of his children. Thus the poor Mormon women are often placed upon the level of the most inferior animals. One of the noted of the apostles said: "We think no more of taking another woman than we do of buying another cow." The women of Utah have ever lived in constant dread of the time when their husbands would be obliged by church command to become practical polygamists. They have had a fearful struggle between obedience to the supposed laws of the Deity, as taught by the Mormon priesthood, and the wishes of their own natures. However pure, however true these poor women may be when converted to Mormonism, is it remarkable that, under the influences by which they are surrounded, they become living martyrs? What days of silent grief and misery they must endure! The story of such women can never be told. The Mormon men have claimed that the women "get used to plural marriage, and are happy in it." It is a libel upon the nature of woman to believe this statement for a moment. No woman ever desired to share her husband with another woman, and no husband could ever please two wives. Polygamy has enslaved the Mormon men, while it has martyrized the Mormon women. Brigham Young openly avowed that when Joseph Smith gave him "the order" for the first time that it was a great trial to his soul. The locks of an apostle turned white in a single night, it is said, when he was "commanded" to take another wife. In the earlier days of Mormon life in the mountains the elders made no concealment of their courtships. The maiden in her teens would be escorted by the already married intended husband of twice or
thrice her years to places of public festivity, with all the attention of a romantic and love-stricken youth. When the day of marriage arrived, the bridegroom and his wife, and the bride with the relatives and invited guests, assembled in some place appointed for the ceremony. A scribe proceeded to carefully record the names, ages, native towns, States, and. country of the parties to be married. Brigham Young, who was the president, seer, Prophet, revelator, etc., and alone held the "keys" of this solemn ordinance, called upon the bridegroom and his wife and the bride to stand before him, the wife on the left hand of her husband, the bride to stand on her left. The wife was then called upon to place the hand of the bride in that of her husband, if she was willing to give the woman to her husband "to be his lawful wedded wife for time and all eternity." The president concluded the ceremony by saying:
"In the name of the lord Jesus Christ, and by the authority of the Holy Priesthood, I pronounce you legally and lawfully husband and wife for time and for all eternity; and I seal upon you the blessings of the holy resurrection, with power to come forth in the morning of the first resurrection clothed with glory, immortality, and eternal lives; and I seal upon you the blessings of thrones, and dominions, and principalities, and powers, and exaltations, together with the blessings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and say unto you, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, that you may have joy and rejoicing in your posterity, in the day of the Lord Jesus Christ. All these blessings, together with all other blessings pertaining to the new and everlasting covenant, I seal upon your heads, through your faithfulness unto the end, by the authority
of the Holy Priesthood, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen."
The scribe then entered on the general record the date and place of the marriage, with the names of witnesses.
This was the fashion of "sealing" by President Young in "the good old days," when the ceremony was performed with as much ostentation as the parties could afford, openly, and without the slightest attempt at concealment. Plural marriages have latterly been made in a much quieter manner, but with the same form. Brigham drove a thriving trade both in marrying and divorcing the Saints. He said these services "supplied his wives with pocket money." With all the commanding influence of his position he could not silence the bickering and unhappiness in his own household, until he threatened to divorce all his wives, and told them that if they despised the order of heaven he would pray that they would be cursed by the Almighty. After such violence they "schooled themselves into silence and submission." In 1873 T. B. H. Stenhouse (twenty years a Mormon elder and missionary, and later an apostate), in his "Rocky Mountain Saints," wrote of polygamy as follows: "Thirty years of its practice under the most favorable circumstances have stamped it as a withering curse. "The doctrine of plural marriages is not made prominent when Mormon missionaries seek to make converts in foreign lands. When the trains loaded with emigrants reach Salt Lake City the apostles and dignitaries of the church gather to receive them, and select fairer and more youthful inmates for their harems. A young girl from Sweden, not more than eighteen years of age, was thus selected by one of the twelve apostles -- a man of sixty. She acknowledged that the union with so high a dignitary of the church would confer
great honor upon her, but confessed that a young countryman of her's had won her affections during the voyage, and that she was to be married to him the following day. She supposed this statement would be sufficient, but was told that she must not resist the wishes of one of the anointed in Israel. The expectant bridegroom was interviewed by a bishop, but with no better success. Such contumacy was surprising. The will of one of the twelve must not be gainsaid. That night the girl was forced into his harem. The lover was found the next morning in a glen of the Wasatach Mountains, alive, but mutilated.
All Mormons are not polygamists, but the priesthood urges tine practice of polygamy on their followers, particularly upon young men of talent, influence, and independence of character. It keeps them in the church; for if such an one were to apostatize, a Mormon jury would require very slight evidence to find him guilty of bigamy. The idea of taking a second wife to a man who is happily married is at first extremely distasteful if he is at all sensitive; but a woman who was for thirty-five years in the Mormon Church says "no matter what a man may be, if he receives Mormonism as a whole and governs himself by its teachings, he becomes hopelessly bad. "Wife-whipping is not uncommon in Utah. It is a saying there that a man who is good at managing his cattle will be able to manage his women. The question has often been asked what induces women to go into "plurality" when they are acquainted with its horrors, It is to them a duty to be performed, no matter what the sacrifice may cost them -- in short, it is their religion. They affirm that there is no salvation without it. They confess to their Gentile friends that they never see a day's happiness after their
husbands take the second wife, but they yield to that sound Mormon doctrine that "the first duty of a woman is submission, the second silence." The following story is from the lips of the first wife of Orley [sic] Pratt, one of the most intellectually gifted of the Mormon leaders. At the time of its relation she was sixty years of age and in delicate health. Mrs. Pratt is said to have "a refined manner and unusual strength of character." Mrs. Pratt and her husband were married young, and for love. They became Mormons when there was very little said of polygamy among them or it was a prominent feature of their faith. They had three sons, of whom they were proud, and they were happy in each other. Orley [sic] Pratt developed great powers of oratory, which made him acceptable as a preacher at home and missionary abroad. In these days Brigham Young found fault with him for being such a strict monogamist. It was a bad example for the young men. This went on for three years, a season of anguish to both husband and wife, particularly to her, as she saw that the president's insidious influence was gaining ground with him He told her it was his duty to yield to the teachings of Christ. At last he yielded, although reluctantly. The second wife did not come into their family, and Mrs. Pratt says her husband was as wretched as herself; but this feeling wore away with him, and then she had only begun to drink of the bitter cup. A third, fourth, and fifth wife was added, but were not admitted into the house of the first wife, where her children were growing up. Mrs. Pratt began to see the effect of this unnatural mode of life upon her husband. His affections seemed blunted. He was indifferent to her and her children. In the earlier stages of this man's polygamous career he spent most of his time with the wife of his youth, visiting his
other wives at rare intervals. As a crowning insult to her, he informed her that henceforth he should divide his time equally between his different households. With the true spirit of a woman, Mrs. Pratt then said to him that she would never again receive him as her husband, as he had lost his place in her heart. He did not believe her -- it was only a woman's threat. She remained true to her word. She so trained her sons to hate the system that had made her life wretched, that they became pronounced Mormon apostates, although they endured repeated persecutions from Brigham Young.
If a polygamous Mormon is wealthy each wife can have a separate establishment. Sometimes cottages are seen side by side, where there is a wife in each cottage. One of the apostles kept nine wives in a large house, each wife having her own apartments. When an impecunious Mormon takes several wives, he expects them not only to support themselves, but sometimes to take care of him as well. Poverty with polygamy renders these people positively brutish. A Christian minister, who is thoroughly acquainted with the Mormons, says: "Nowhere in the United States is there more squalid poverty in proportion to the population, or a greater lack of the comforts of life among tine lower classes, than in Utah." 'This will apply to the Territory at large rather than to Salt Lake City, where poor people have as many comforts as the impecunious enjoy in other large cities. It is an established fact that Mormonism degrades all the finer feelings of the soul, and that old age is not honored among them. If there is an aged wife in a household, she is the common drudge. Sometimes she is sent adrift to take care of herself. The missionaries of Christian churches in Utah report that they have their hands full in caring for the sick, the aged, the destitute,
and the helpless, who are brought there by the Mormon missionaries, and then left to shift for themselves.
Mormon polygamy has an infamous pre-eminence over that of the Turks in the intermarriage of near relations. It is not uncommon for a man to marry sisters, or mother and one or more daughters, as they agree better than strangers. In the southern settlements of Utah are found all the most revolting features of Mormonism. In the Fortnightly for October, 1881, a Federal judge, who has resided near Salt Lake City for years, testifies that there is no law on the statute-book of the Territory against incest. The claim that polygamy produces finer offspring than monogamy has been proved to be an insolent fallacy. "The looseness of divorce among the Saints has never had a parallel among the most depraved of Gentiles, "says a recent observer of Mormon methods in Salt Lake City. Brigham Young granted divorces to his people, While admitting they were not worth the paper they were written upon. He did not hesitate to untie as many elders in Israel as could pay for the luxury.
The granting of woman's suffrage by Brigham young, in 1871, was a coup d' etat for the purpose of strengthening Mormonism and circumventing "the enemy" -- in other words, the Gentiles. But in a Territory where polygamy is proclaimed to be "divine," and that has no laws against bigamy, adultery, and kindred crimes, there can be no just appreciation of woman. Female suffrage under such conditions is a mockery and delusion. Polygamy, although "the corner-stone of the Mormon church," is not inserted in its thirteen printed articles of faith. It would alarm those turning their eyes toward "the land of promise." The elastic conscience of John Taylor, the present "Prophet, seer, and revelator"
to "the chosen people," is exemplified by his emphatic denial of polygamy, in 1850, when he "rejoiced in multitudinous households "
The refrain of a "song of Zion" runs
God bless the wife that strives
And aids her husband all she can
To obtain a dozen wives."
openly and defiantly preached than ever. Under the statutes there has been one conviction for polygamy within twenty years.
March 2d, I 882, the "Edmunds Bill" passed both Houses of Congress, after weary delays and much opposition. It reads as follows:
(PUBLIC -- NO. 30.)AN ACT to amend section fifty-three hundred and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes of the United States, in reference to bigamy, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That section fifty-three hundred and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the same is hereby, amended so as to read us follows, namely:
"Every person who has a husband or wife living who, in a Territory or other place over which the United States have exclusive jurisdiction, hereafter marries another, whether married or single, and any man who hereafter simultaneously, or on the same day, marries more than one woman, in a Territory or other place over which the United States have exclusive jurisdiction, is guilty of polygamy, and shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars and by imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; but this section shall not extend to any person by reason of any former marriage whose husband or wife by such marriage shall have been absent for five successive years, and is not known to such person to be living, and is believed by such person to be dead, nor to any person by reason of any former marriage which shall have been dissolved by a valid decree of a competent court, nor to any person by reason of any former marriage which shall have been pronounced void by a valid decree of a competent court, on the ground of nullity of the marriage contract."
SEC. 2. That the foregoing provisions shall not affect the prosecution or punishment of any offence already committed against the section amended by the first section of this act.
SEC. 3. That if any male person, in a Territory or other place over which the United States have exclusive jurisdiction, hereafter cohabits with more than one woman, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than three hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not
more than six months, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court.
SEC. 4. That counts for any or all of the offences named in sections one and three of this act may be joined in the same information or indictment.
SEC. 5. That in any prosecution for bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation, under any statute of the United States, it shall be sufficient cause of challenge to any person drawn or summoned as a juryman or talesman, first, that he is or has been living in the practice of bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation with more than one woman, or that he is or has been guilty of an offence punishable by either of the foregoing sections, or by section fifty-three hundred and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes of the United States, or the act of July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled "An act to punish and prevent the practice of polygamy in the Territories of the United States and other places, and disapproving and annulling certain acts of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah," or, second, that he believes it right for a man to have more than one living and undivorced wife at the same time, or to live in the practice of cohabiting with more than one woman; and any person appearing or offered as a juror or talesman, and challenged on either of the foregoing grounds, may be questioned on his oath as to the existence of any such cause of challenge, and other evidence may be introduced bearing upon the question raised by such challenge; and this question shall be tried by the court, But as to the first ground of challenge before mentioned, the person challenged shall not be bound to answer if he shall say upon his oath that he declines on the ground that his answer may tend to criminate himself; and if he shall answer as to said first ground, his answer shall not be given in evidence in any criminal prosecution against him for any offence named in sections one or three of this act; but if he declines to answer on any ground, he shall be rejected as incompetent.
SEC. 6. That the President is hereby authorized to grant amnesty to such classes of offenders guilty of bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation, before the passage of this act, on such conditions and under such limitations as he shall think proper; but no such amnesty shall have effect unless the conditions thereof shall be complied with.
under such limitations as he shall think proper; but no such amnesty shall have effect unless the conditions thereof shall be complied with.
SEC. 7. That the issue of bigamous or polygamous marriages, known as Mormon marriages, in cases in which such marriages have been solemnized according to the ceremonies of the Mormon sect, in any Territory of the United States, and such issue shall have been
born before the first day of January, Anno Domini eighteen hundred and eighty-three, are hereby legitimated.
SEC. 8. That no polygamist, bigamist, or any person cohabiting with more than one woman, and no woman cohabiting with any of the persons described as aforesaid in this section, in any Territory or other place over which the United States have exclusive jurisdiction, shall be entitled to vote at any election held in any such Territory or other place, or be eligible for election or appointment to or be entitled to hold any office or place of public trust, honor, or emolument in, under, or for any such Territory or place, or under the United States.
SEC. 9. That all the registration and election offices of every description in the Territory of Utah are hereby declared vacant, and each and every duty relating to the registration of voters, the conduct of elections, the receiving or rejection of votes, and the canvassing and returning of the same, and the issuing of certificates or other evidence of election in said Territory, shall, until other provision be made by the Legislative Assembly of said Territory as is hereinafter by this section provided, be performed under the existing laws of the United States and of said Territory by proper persons, who shall he appointed to execute such offices and perform such duties by a board of five persons, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, not more than three of whom shall be members of one political party; and a majority of whom shall be a quorum. The members of said board so appointed by the President shall each receive a salary at the rate of three thousand dollars per annum, and shall continue in office until the Legislative Assembly of said Territory shall make provision for filling said offices as herein authorized. The secretary of the Territory shall be the secretary of said board, and keep a journal of its proceedings, and attest the action of said board under this section. The canvass and return of all the votes at elections in said Territory for members of the Legislative Assembly thereof shall also be returned to said board, which shall canvass all such returns and issue certificates of election to those persons who, being eligible for such election, shall appear to have been lawfully elected, which certificates shall be the only evidence of the right of such persons to sit in such assembly: Provided, That said board of five persons shall not exclude any person otherwise eligible to vote from the polls on account of any opinion such person may entertain on the subject of bigamy or polygamy nor shall they refuse to count any such vote on account of the opinion of the person casting it on the subject of bigamy or polygamy; but each
house of such assembly, after its organization shall have power to decide upon the elections and qualifications of its members And at, or after the first meeting of said Legislative Assembly whose members shall have been elected and returned according to the provisions of this act, said Legislative Assembly may make such laws, the organic
conformable to act of said Territory and not inconsistent with other laws of the United States as it shall deem proper concerning the filling of the offices in said Territory declared vacant by this act.
Approved March 22, 1882.
[Printer's No., 8925.
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
AN ACT to amend an act entitled "An act to amend section fifty-three hundred and fifty-two of the Revised Statutes of the United States, in reference to bigamy, and for other purposes," approved March twenty-second eighteen hundred. and eighty-two.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United. States of America in Congress assembled, That in any proceeding and examination before a grand jury, a judge, justice, or a United States commissioner, or a court in any prosecution for bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation, under any statute of the United. States the lawful husband or wife of the person accused. shall be a competent witness, and may be called and may be compelled to testify in such Proceeding, examination, or prosecution without the consent of the husband. or wife, as the case may be; but such witness shall not be permitted to testify as to any confidential statement or communication, made by either husband or wife to each other during the existence of the marriage relation.
SEC. 2. That in any prosecution for bigamy Polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation under any statute of the United States, whether before
a United States commissioner, justice, judge, a grand jury, or any court, an attachment for any witness may be issued by the court, judge, or commissioner, without a previous subpoena, compelling the immediate attendance of such witness, when it shall appear to the commissioner, justice, judge, or court, as the case may be, that there is reasonable ground to believe that such witness will unlawfully fail to obey a subpoena issued and served in the usual course in such cases; and in such case the usual witness fees shall be paid to such witness so attached: Provided, That no person shall be held in custody under any attachment issued as provided by this section for a longer time than ten days; and the person attached may at any time secure his or her discharge from custody by executing a recognizance, with sufficient sureties, conditioned for the appearance of such person at the proper time as a witness in the cause or proceeding wherein the attachment may be issued.
SEC. 3. That any prosecution under any statute of the United States for bigamy, polygamy, or unlawful cohabitation may be commenced at any time within five years next after the commission of the offence; but this provision shall not be construed to apply to any offence already barred by any existing statute of limitation.
SEC. 4. That every ceremony of marriage, or in the nature of a marriage ceremony, of any kind, in any of the Territories of the United States, whether either or both or more of the parties to such ceremony be lawfully competent to be the subjects of such marriage or ceremony or not, shall be certified in writing by a certificate stating the fact and nature of such ceremony, the full names of each of the parties concerned, and the full name of every officer, priest, and person by whatever style or designation called or known, in any way taking part in the performance of such ceremony, which certificate shall be drawn up and signed by the parties to such ceremony, and by every officer, priest, and person taking part in the performance of such ceremony, and shall be by the officer, priest, or other person solemnizing such marriage or ceremony filed in the office of the probate court, or, if there be none, in the office of the court having probate powers in the county or district in which such ceremony shall take place, for record, and shall be immediately recorded.
Such certificate shall be prima facie evidence of the facts required by this act to be stated therein, in any proceeding, civil or criminal, in which the matter shall be drawn in question. Any person who shall violate any of the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment
not longer than two years, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court.
SEC. 5. That every certificate, record, and entry of any kind concerning any ceremony of marriage, or in the nature of a marriage ceremony of any kind. made or kept by any officer, clergyman, priest, or person performing civil or ecclesiastical functions, whether lawful or not, in any Territory of the United States, and any record thereof in any office or place, shall be subject to inspection at all reasonable times by any judge, magistrate, or officer of justice appointed under the authority of the United States, and shall, on request, be produced and shown to such judge, magistrate, or officer by any person in whose possession or control the same may be. Every person who shall violate the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall, on conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars, or by imprisonment not longer than two years, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court, And it shall be lawful for any United States commissioner, justice, judge, or court before whom any proceeding shall be pending in which such certificate, record, or entry may be material, by proper warrant, to cause such certificate, record, or entry, and the book, document, or paper containing the same, to be taken and brought before him or it for the purposes of such proceeding.
SEC. 6. That nothing in this act shall be held to prevent the proof of marriages, whether lawful or unlawful, by any evidence now legally admissible for that purpose.
SEC. 7, That it shall not be lawful for any female to vote at any election hereafter held in the Territory of Utah for any public purpose whatever, and no such vote shall he received or counted or given effect in any manner whatever; and any and every act of the governor and Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah providing for or allowing the registration or voting by females is hereby annulled.
SEC. 8. That all laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah which provide for numbering or identifying the votes of the electors at any election in said Territory are hereby disapproved and annulled; but the foregoing provision shall not preclude the lawful registration of votes, or any other provisions for securing fair elections which do not involve the disclosure of the candidates for whom any particular elector shall have voted.
SEC. 9. That the laws enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah conferring jurisdiction upon probate courts, or the judges thereof, or any of them, in said Territory, other than in respect
of the estates of deceased persons and in respect of the guardianship of the persons and property of infants, and in respect of the
persons and property of persons not of sound mind, are hereby disapproved and annulled; and no probate court or judge of probate shall exercise any jurisdiction other than in respect of the matters aforesaid; and every such jurisdiction so by force of this act withdrawn from the said probate courts or judges shall be had and exercised by the district courts of said Territory, respectively.
SEC. 10. That the laws enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah which provide for or recognize the capacity of illegitimate children to inherit or to be entitled to any distributive share in the estate of the father of such illegitimate child are hereby disapproved and annulled; and no illegitimate child shall hereafter be entitled to inherit from his or her father or to receive any distributive share in the estate of his or her father: Provided, That this section shall not apply to any illegitimate child born previous to the passage of this act.
SEC. 11. That all laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah which provide that prosecution for adultery can only be commenced on the complaint of the husband or wife are hereby disapproved and annulled; and all prosecutions for adultery may hereafter be instituted in the same way that prosecutions for other crimes are.
SEC. 12. That the acts of the Legislative Assembly of Utah incorporating, continuing, or providing for the corporation known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and the ordinance of the so-called General Assembly of the State of Deseret incorporating the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, so far as the same may new have legal force and validity, are hereby disapproved and annulled, so far as the same may preclude the appointment by the United States of certain trustees of said corporation as is hereinafter provided. The President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint fourteen trustees of the said corporation, who shall have and exercise all the powers and functions of trustees and assistant trustees provided for in the laws creating, amending, or continuing the said corporation, which trustees so appointed shall hold their respective offices for the term of two years; and the trustees of said corporation shall annually or oftener make a full report to the Secretary of the Interior embracing all the property, business affairs, and operations of the said corporation; and the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah shall not have power to change the laws respecting said corporation without
the approval of Congress. Said trustees shall each give bond, payable to the United States, with good and sufficient security, for the faithful discharge of the duties incumbent upon him as trustee, in such sum as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior.
SEC. 13. That it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General of the United States to institute and prosecute proceedings to forfeit and escheat to the United States the property of corporations obtained or held in violation of section three of the act of Congress approved the first day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-two, entitled "An act to punish and prevent the practice of polygamy in the Territories of the United States and other places, and disapproving and annulling certain acts of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah," or in violation of section eighteen hundred and ninety of the Revised Statutes of the United States; and all such property so forfeited and [[eseheated]] to the United States shall be disposed of by the Secretary of the Interior, and the proceeds thereof applied to the use and benefit of the common schools in the Territory in which such property may be: Provided, That no building shall be forfeited which is held and occupied exclusively for purposes of religious worship.
SEC. 14. That in any proceeding for the enforcement of the provisions of law against corporations or associations acquiring or holding property in any Territory of the United States in excess of the amount limited by law, the court before which such proceeding may be instituted shall have power in a summary way to compel the production of all books, records, papers, and documents of or belonging to any trustee or person holding or controlling or managing property in which such corporation may have any right, title, or interest whatever.
SEC. 15. That all laws of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, or of the so-called government of the State of Deseret, creating, organizing, amending, or continuing the corporation or association called the Perpetual Emigrating Fund Company are hereby disapproved and annulled; and it shall not be lawful for the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah to create, organize, or in any manner recognize any corporation or association for the purpose of or operating to accomplish the bringing of persons into the said Territory for any purpose whatsoever.
SEC. 16. That it shall be the duty of the Attorney-General of the United States to cause such proceedings to be taken in the Supreme Court of the Territory of Utah as shall be proper to dissolve the said corporation and pay the debts and to dispose of the property and assets thereof according to law. Said property and assets, in excess
of the debts and the amount of any lawful claims established by the court against the same, shall escheat to the United States, and shall be taken, invested, and disposed of by the Secretary of the Interior, under the direction of the President of the United States, for the benefit of common schools in said Territory.
SEC. 17. That the existing election districts and apportionments of representation concerning the members of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah are hereby abolished; and it shall be the duty of the governor, Territorial Secretary, and the United States judges in said Territory forthwith to redistrict said Territory, and apportion representation in the [[sarne]] in such manner as to provide, as nearly as may be, for an equal representation of the people (excepting Indians not taxed), being citizens of the United States, according to numbers, in said Legislative Assembly, and to the number of members of the counsel and house of Representatives, respectively, as now established by law; and a record of the establishment of such new districts and the apportionment of representation thereto shall be made in the office of the secretary of said Territory, and such establishment and representation shall continue until Congress shall otherwise provide; and no persons other than citizens of the United States otherwise qualified shall be entitled to vote at any election in said Territory.
SEC. 18. That the provisions of section nine of said act approved March twenty-second, eighteen hundred and eighty-two, in regard to registration and election offices, and the registration of voters, and the conduct of elections, and the powers and duties of the board therein mentioned, shall continue and remain operative until the provision and laws therein referred to be made and enacted by the Legislative Assembly of said Territory of Utah, shall have been made and enacted by said assembly and shall have been approved by Congress.
SEC. 19. That whoever commits adultery shall be punished by imprisonment in the penitentiary not exceeding three years; and when the act is committed between a married woman and a men who is unmarried, both parties to such act shall be deemed guilty of adultery; and when such act is committed between a married man and a woman who is unmarried, the man shall be deemed guilty of adultery.
SEC. 20. That if an unmarried man or woman commits fornication, each of them shall be punished by imprisonment not exceeding six months, or by fine not exceeding one hundred dollars.
SEC. 21. That commissioners appointed by the Supreme Court and district courts in the Territory of Utah shall possess and may exercise all the powers and jurisdiction that are or may be possessed or exercised
by justices of the peace in said Territory under the laws thereof, and the same powers conferred by law on commissioners appointed by circuit courts of the United States.
SEC. 22. That the marshal of said Territory of Utah, and his deputies, shall possess and may exercise all the powers in executing the laws of the United States possessed and exercised by sheriffs and their deputies as peace officers; and each of them shall cause all offenders against the law, in his view, to enter into recognizance to keep the peace and to appear at the next term of the court having jurisdiction of the case, and to commit to jail in case of failure to give such recognizance. They shall quell and suppress assaults and batteries, riots, routs, affrays, and insurrections, and shall apprehend and commit to jail all felons.
SEC. 23. That the office of Territorial superintendent of district schools created by the laws of Utah is hereby declared vacant; and it shall be the duty of the Supreme Court of said Territory to appoint a Territorial superintendent of district schools, who shall possess and exercise all the powers and duties imposed by the laws of said Territory upon the Territorial superintendent of district schools, and who shall receive the same salary and compensation, which shall be paid out of the treasury of said Territory; and the laws of the Territory of Utah providing for the method of election and appointment of such Territorial superintendent of district schools are hereby suspended until the further action of Congress shall be had in respect thereto -- The said superintendent shall have power to prohibit the use in any district school of any book of a sectarian character or otherwise unsuitable. Said superintendent shall collect and classify statistics and other information respecting the district schools in said Territory, showing their progress, the whole number of children of school age, the number who attend school in each year in the respective counties and average length of time of their attendance, the number of teachers and the compensation paid to the same, the number of teachers who are Mormons, the number who are so-called Gentiles, the number of children of Mormon parents and the number of children of so-called Gentile parents, and their respective average attendance at school, All of which statistics and information shall he annually reported to Congress, through the governor of said Territory and the Department of the Interior.
SEC. 24. (a) A widow shall be endowed of the third part of all the lands whereof her husband was seized of an estate of inheritance at any time during the marriage. (b) The widow of any alien who at the time of his death shall be
entitled by law to hold any real estate, if she be an inhabitant of the Territory at the time of such death, shall be entitled to dower of such estate in the same manner as if such alien had been a native citizen.
(c) If a husband seized of an estate of inheritance in lands exchanges them for other lands, his widow shall not have dower of both, but shall make her election to be endowed of the lands given or of those taken in exchange; and if such election be not evinced by the commencement of proceedings to recover her dower of the lands given in exchange within one year after the death of her husband, she shall be deemed to have elected to take her dower of the lands received in exchange.
(d) When a person seized of an estate of inheritance in lands shall have executed a mortgage on such estate before marriage, his widow shall nevertheless he entitled to dower out of the lands mortgaged as against every person except the mortgagee and those claiming under him.
(e) Where a husband shall purchase lands during [[coverture]], and shall at the same time mortgage his estate in such lands to secure the payment of the purchase-money, his widow shall not be entitled to dower out of such lands, as against the mortgagee or those claiming under him, although she shall not have united such mortgage; but she shall be entitled to her dower as against all other persons.
(f) Where in such case the mortgagee, or those claiming under him, shall, after the death of the husband of such widow, cause the land mortgaged to be sold, either under a power of sale contained in the mortgage or by virtue of the decree of a court of equity, and if any surplus shall remain after payment of the moneys due on such mortgage and the costs and charges of the sale, such widow shall nevertheless be entitled to the interest or income of the one third part of such surplus, for her life, as her dower.
(g) A widow shall not be endowed of lands conveyed to her husband by way of mortgage unless he acquire an absolute estate therein during the marriage period.
(h) in case of divorce dissolving the marriage contract for the misconduct of the wife, she shall not be endowed.
Passed in the Senate June 18, 1884.
Attest: ANSON G. McCOOK, Secretary.
Brigham Young died August 29th, 1877. He was a remarkable man in many ways, although illiterate. He flattered himself that he would live to the age of Moses,
as he was of a long-lived family; but physically he was not strong. he was born in Whittingham, Vermont, in 1801, of poor but respectable parents. While very young his family removed to central New York, and at a suitable age he became a painter and glazier by trade at Canandaigua, and later in New York City. It was his boast in his days of power, when saying that the meek and poor were to inherit the kingdom of heaven, that he had been "only eleven and a half days at school." In 1832, when he joined the Mormons at Kirtland, Ohio, "the gift of tongues" seemed to "fall on him." He affected to believe that Joseph Smith held "the keys of Salvation;" that he was God's servant that he did not belong to the people, but to the Lord, and was doing the work of the Lord; and if he should lead them astray, it was because they ought to be led astray. If they were chastised or destroyed it was to accomplish some righteous purpose.
Such a blind and unreasoning faith in Joseph, with the abject slavery of mind and will it involves, it is evident was the key to Brigham Young's after life. No one had the right to sit in judgment upon Joseph's actions; no one should question his successor's motives or performance. Joseph, it is said, had a secret fear of Brigham's power, and sent him on long missions for reasons of a prudential character. During these journeys, and the intercourse he had with the world, his wits were sharpened, and his natural powers of intellect were quickened by keen observation. he established the first Mormon mission in England at Liverpool. he was naturally a leader, and the Mormons yielded to his magnetic sway when he succeeded the prophet at Nauvoo,
After the establishment of the Saints at Zion he is said to have had slight acquaintance
with the outside world for several years, and was seldom seen by his people at large save on Sundays. He was always occupied with affairs, and nothing in public or private life of the slightest moment escaped his knowledge. His residence in Salt Lake City, called the "Lion House" from the figure of a crouching lion over the portico, is a group of houses of unequal dimensions, that has neither architectural beauty nor grace. There are twenty rooms on the "living floor," with sleeping rooms above, and weaving rooms, laundry, dining-room, etc., on the lower floor. Here most of his nineteen wives and children resided. The largest of the buildings he called the "Bee Hive House." It was his official residence. Here he had his chambre ˆ coucher; here his buttons and stockings were adjusted to his satisfaction.
After business hours it was difficult to determine where he would be, as he was "master of his own actions." The legal Mrs. Young lived at the White House, a modest dwelling at a little distance from the Lion House. Three favorites had each a separate establishment. All the wives were working women save Amelia, Emmeline, and Mrs. Cobb Young, the last favorite and "best beloved." He wanted no "ornaments" about him, and despised fashion and conventionalities. When the first millinery shop was established in Salt Lake City, he said it was as "terrible" to him" as an army with banners." His wives had none of the Christian marital relations with him. They met in the dining-room or in the parlor at evening prayer, when the household collected at the ringing of a bell; but the greater part seldom saw him elsewhere. They had no romance in their lives, only hard work and the sacrifice to their faith. The penalty of a scandal to a Mormon woman is death, and few women have the bravery to hazard it;
so Brigham's wives endured the situation. His attentions to his wives in public were calculated. His first wife and a favorite sat on a sofa with him at all festivities. The other wives found places as they pleased, although he usually danced with five or six of them after he had done the duty dance with Amelia, Emmeline, or "the best beloved." He danced well for a man of his years, and enjoyed a break-down at the close of the evening. He was habitually an early-riser, and transacted a great deal of business before breakfast. At nine o'clock he began the routine of the day in his office, with the assistance of a private secretary. He schooled himself to settle any point in once thinking of it deliberately, then gave his decision, and never wished to hear of it again. From ten to eleven he gave audience to apostles, bishops, leading citizens, and strangers; and not infrequently to "Sisters" who had complaints to make of their husbands. Brigham had complete control over his people. He knew everything. He claimed that the Saints could do nothing without his knowledge and approval, "even to the ribbons a woman should wear." He assumed the most vital interests in every man's affairs. The only rank in Zion is the priesthood, but the "royal blood of Young overtops them all," he said. His journeys through the territory were processions of state. Banners were paraded before him bearing "Hail to Zion's Chief," "God Bless Brigham Young," and other sentiments of welcome and adulation. He took his favorite wife with him in these triumphal visits, As a preacher he was forcible and vigorous, but his language was a mixture of profanity, vulgarity, bad grammar, "cheap rant, and poor cant," He was ever listened to attentively, as his hearers expected he would "say something" they were anxious to learn. The actual wealth
of this prophet will never be known. He had vast tracts of land in Utah, interests in various railways, mines, and manufactories, was the third largest depositor in the Bank of England, and had other moneys "salted away" for necessities. As he had control of the tithing, and possessed unlimited credit, be could add "house to house" and "field to field." He could have left imperishable records for the care of the sick and needy behind him; but he never founded a hospital or institution worthy of mention. There never were people more willing to obey than the Mormons during his administration. He could have swayed them as he pleased; and if he had been a good man he had a rare opportunity for proving it. In the later years of his life an English tourist described Brigham Young as being above the middle height, portly in person, and as having a sensual expression of countenance. He had the look of a determined man and the character of an obstinate one, and, as an enthusiastic admirer once said of him, "If he makes up his mind to do a thing, all hell can't stop him." The Prophet's dress was of gray homespun cloth, with which he wore a black satin vest and cravat, with a broad, unstarched collar turned over it. He was a paragon of neatness. He slept alone; his life was ascetic; his favorite food baked potatoes, with buttermilk, and his drink water. His followers deemed him "an angel of light: his enemies a goblin damned." His two most conspicuous qualities were his selfishness and his imposture No mortal can estimate the dreadful influence of Brigham Young's thirty-years' rule upon the Mormons. * he set them examples of robbery, perjury, open murder, and secret assassination, He often preached the necessity
* Appendix No. 25.
of murder (blood atonement) in order to save souls. In 1857 Ann Eliza, his fifteenth wife, left him, and petitioned the United States Court for a divorce, which was denied on the ground that the marriage was polygamous, and therefore null and void. In 1871 Brigham was indicted for polygamy, but no conviction was reached through the lax enforcement of the law by the United States officials then in power. Besides his other offices, he was "Grand Archer of the Order of Danites."
He left seventy-five children, all amply provided for. According to some authorities, he had thirty-six wives. Dora Young, one of his numerous daughters, apostatized, and declared that the first thing that opened her eyes to the atrocities of Mormonism was her father's wholesale perjuries. With the bravery of spirit in which this remarkable man encountered every circumstance in his eventful career, Brigham Young arranged his temporal affairs before making his exit from life, He ordered where and how he should be buried. Evidently he feared that some of his many victims would endeavor to procure his body after death, either through motives of revenge or the desire for profit, and his wishes were carefully executed. His grave is in an otherwise unused yard in the rear of one of his houses of residence. An iron railing surrounds a flat gray stone slab, which bears no inscription The slab is said to weigh several tons, and covers the vault wherein the remains of the second Prophet rest, in a stone sarcophagus surrounded by several outer casings that are cemented with extraordinary care. After his burial there was a report that he was still living, which probably arose from the fact that the most ignorant and deluded of the Mormons were unwilling to believe that Brigham Young was mortal. There are still people among the Saints who aver that their
great Prophet is alive and dwelling somewhere in obscurity from motives he deems wise and prudential, and that when the time arrives for him to reappear he will return to them with renewed power and glory.
His demise to the better educated of his followers, to his partners in fraud and delusion, was an evident relief. During his life they were merely his puppets, which he swayed at his will. They accepted his policy in all directions, but could carry it out in agreement with their own ideas.
This man will always stand out as a unique character in history. His mental abilities were greater than those of Joseph Smith, but his personal powers of attractiveness were far less. Some one has written of him as follows: "Brigham Young is very human. he can button himself up to an unwelcome visitor in a style that a stranger is not likely to forget; but when he is in excellent humor he is a perfect Chesterfield." he bewailed the fact that there was silver and gold in the hills of Utah; he forbade his people from searching for it, and the first prospectors who went to Utah to look for it he ordered should be assassinated, he said: "if men grow rich they will want fine houses and horses; their women will want fine clothes, and it will be the destruction of our holy religion."
He called himself "the lion of the Lord," and he made freedom of thought as impossible to the Mormons as to idiots or slaves. In common with the elders and other Mormons, Brigham was fond of talking of the mysteries of his religion. Whether it is ever permitted to the unsanctified to gain an insight into these "mysteries" or no, this much is certain -- the facts which are hidden by the sayings and writings of the Mormons are ofttimes more interesting than any, if any, which they have yet disclosed.
John Taylor Elected as Successor to the Second Prophet -- The Trial of Rudger Clawson, Jr., for Bigamy -- Salt Lake City -- Its Beautiful Location -- The Tabernacle and Public Buildings -- Mormon Conferences -- The Freedom of the Ballot in Utah -- The Present Generation of Mormons -- Predictions Regarding the Future of Mormonism -- Far-seeing Mormons Preparing a Rendezvous for the Victims of the Edmunds Law.
WHEN Brigham Young died, in August, 1877, it was generally believed throughout the civilized world that the disintegration of Mormonism would follow that event. With the removal of his iron and arbitrary rule, it was supposed that there would be an independence if feeling among the Saints that had not previously existed, and that as railways were constructed, mines developed, and industries established, together with the influx of a Gentile population, the founding of Christian schools, and various institutions under the patronage of Christiam missions, the whole scheme of "exclusive salvation" would gradually become extinct. The fallacy of such an opinion is shown by the situation of affairs in Utah at the present time. Brigham Young, Jr., failing to secure his father's office, John Taylor was elected as the successor of the second Prophet. The office fell to Taylor, but upon the shoulders of George Q. Cannon the mantle of authority really descended.
Both men have played conspicuous roles in the history of Mormonism. Both are of English birth, and emigrated to this country when very young. John Taylor is adroit,
shrewd, subtle; is well educated, is a vigorous writer, and possesses the rarest tact, or he never could have steered his way through the stormy seas of Mormon experiences successfully, or adapted himself to the changeful and Brigham tyrannical ride of Young. He was a favorite with Joseph Smith, and was with him and his brother Hyrum in the jail at Carthage, Ill., at the time they were killed by an infuriated mob. he was then called the "Apostle Taylor," and, it is said, "comforted" the brothers while they were in durance vile, As he was a man of marked ability, and made himself useful in many ways in Utah, he was intrusted with important missions by Brigham Young to distant countries, and possibly to keep him from the realization of ambitious schemes at home, as many other men of talent were sent by the shrewd Prophet. In the year 1852 Taylor founded a Mormon school in Paris called "L'Etoile du Deseret," and has translated the "Book of Mormon" into French and German. he has also written several books for the enlightenment of the Mormons in spiritual matters. Of these is a work he calls "The Government of God," which has been translated into several languages. President Taylor is now considerably over seventy years of age, and has been a resident of the United States for fifty years. he is tall and distinguished in his personal appearance, and has the winning arts which culture and travel frequently give to a man of wit. His residence in Salt Lake City is called "the Gardo," a handsome house that Brigham built for his favorite Amelia, and after the Prophet's death was purchased as the future home for Mormon presidents. It is in fact, the "White House" to the people, who look upon Taylor as their real president and political as well as spiritual ruler. He has four wives, and while on a mission in the Isle of Jersey a
few years ago made proposals of polygamous marriage to a pretty maiden whom he converted to Mormonism. Through the preaching of Young, Taylor, and Cannon, and other noted men of the faith, there are seventeen places for Mormon meetings in London alone, and a large number of Mormon missionaries scattered over Great Britain. George Q. Cannon has been a resident of the United States for forty years. For several years he was attorney for the Mormons at Washington, and although he has four wives and four broods of children, occupied a seat as delegate in Congress. Some one has said of him: "He is the sweetest and most plausible sophist on earth." When Brigham Young named him for the place he said: "I will thrust polygamy down the throats of Congressmen." Mr. Cannon's Congressional record proved that his leader's opinion of him was amply justified, and that the affairs of his people were adroitly managed by his wily stratagems and the influence of his honeyed speech.
Mr. Cannon has recently been appointed legal controller and counselor of Mormon affairs by President Taylor. He is the premier of the Mormon estate, the head centre of all matters concerning his people. From his office at St. George he issues the commands, openly or secretly, which are to direct his people. His expressed opinion on any given subject is an Ultima Thule to the followers of Joseph, which they dare not dispute. In a defence of Mormonism Mr. Cannon has written: " Utah has been the Cinderella of the family of States; give her a fair opportunity, and see if she will not rank with all that is admirable and attractive with her more favored sisters."
With the death of Brigham Young the American leadership of the Mormons was at an end, as nearly all
of their more influential men are of foreign birth. If a Mormon is asked of his belief, he will show a card, prepared for such inquiry, on which are printed the thirteen most important articles of his faith; but there is nothing of polygamy included in these articles. Their belief, as professed and practised, are two different things. While Mormonism preaches that polygamy is the one divine institution required in these latter days to regenerate and sanctify a world steeped in ignorance, their articles of faith, as shown to Gentiles, do not even mention it. Mrs. Paddock, the author of "The Fate of Madame La Tour" -- a powerful story of Mormon life -- and also a keen observer of passing events in Utah, has recently written to a friend in the East: "There have been few material changes in the condition of affairs in the Territory, with the exception of those resulting from the enforcement of the Edmunds law. Polygamists have been disfranchised and rendered ineligible to office, but practically the old men, the Mormon leaders who have controlled the affairs of Utah for thirty years, have simply abdicated in favor of their sons. Consequently the Territory is still under Mormon rule, and the priesthood have it still in their power to inflict severe punishment upon those who apostate from the Mormon faith. This power is exercised even outside of Utah toward apostates. Please understand that polygamy is not dying out. It is strengthen
itself, enlarging its borders, amid claiming fresh victims. What was done openly in this direction a few years ago is now done in secret, but the effect is as bad, or worse. Young girls with babes in their arms are taught to endure anything rather than give the names of the fathers of their children -- the men to whom they have been 'sealed.' It is the man's safety that is secured by such means, and his interests are to be considered
in advance of everything else. But Mormon ingenuity has devised still another method by which men may escape legal penalties. According to the present interpretation of the law, it is the marriage ceremony that constitutes the crime of bigamy; and if this is dispensed with, prosecution for bigamy cannot follow,
"An intelligent woman, at present a member of the Presbyterian Church who was formerly a Mormon, lived with Bishop Johnson ten years (according to her own testimony) as a plural wife before she was sealed to him; and says it is a common thing in the settlements for men to take plural wives without any ceremony whatever. The condition of the women who live in polygamy is not the saddest feature of the system. It is the children who suffer for the sins of their parents; who, in consequence of the life lived by their mother, are born deformed in body as well as in soul.
"A few years ago an educated, intelligent gentleman, a journalist, came here from Europe, bringing his young wife with him, How such people came to be entangled in the meshes of Mormonism was a marvel; but both appeared to be sincere believers in the Latter-Day Gospel. Soon a strong pressure was brought to bear upon the husband to induce him to contract a second marriage. The wife, finding opposition in vain, at length gave her consent, and the bride was brought home. A few months afterward the first wife gave birth to a child. The poor babe, doomed to bear the sins of others, never smiled, and never cried aloud, but always, night and day, it wept silently. Even in sleep great tears forced themselves from beneath its closed eyelids, and rolled over its cheeks, while its face bore the expression, not of infantile grief, but of the terrible anguish that the mother had endured in secret, After a few weeks it began to pine away, and at length, without any visible ailment, sank into its grave.
"'My baby died of a broken heart,' said the wretched mother. 'Every hour of its little life it shed the tears that I repressed before its birth, and the agony that I hid in my heart killed it at last.'" *
* From "Face to Face with Mormonism," by Mrs. Joseph Cook.
Every Mormon has a vote to be cast as John Taylor commands; and while the leaders of the Saints observe the forms of republican polity, their despotism is as absolute in its control as any on earth. Behind the Mormon creed there is a deadly menace to free government few suspect. Between their creed and the Government of the United States, the latter is of no account. To circumvent the laws and defeat justice is the aim of every Mormon who is a true convert to the faith.
President Arthur has won the respect of the law-abiding citizens of Utah by his recent re-appointment of Governor Eli H. Murray, and placing Judge Zane, of Illinois, at the head of the Supreme Court. Judge Zane's first act was to try a polygamist, get him convicted, refuse bail, and send him to the penitentiary. This polygamy case of Rudger Clawson, the son of Bishop Clawson, has attracted attention throughout the country. The witnesses in Clawson's defence were among the most influential of the Saints. Of them was John Taylor, who is said to have surprised his followers by his testimony. As it bears upon polygamy, it will be given in part as it was reported in the Salt Lake Tribune of Saturday, October 18th, 1884 with the speech of Mr. Varian, the indictment, Judge Zane's charge to the jury, and the "sentence." He testified:
"I am president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints; don't know how long I have been president; the records would show; am acquainted to some extent with the doctrines of the church; am acquainted with the marriage sacrament; there is an Endowment House in this city; marriages by members of the Mormon Church are celebrated at the Endowment House or elsewhere; couldn't say where else; there is a doctrine of the church of plural marriage most certainly; the church does not require that when members of the faith enter into plural marriage, they must go through the Endowment House; as far as I know, most of the marriages are
not performed in the Endowment House; I know of plural marriages being performed outside of the Endowment House; can't say who the parties married were; I have no recollection of any plural marriage taking place outside of one of the places designated; there is no place set apart specifically for performing plural marriages; there is a place set apart for marriage ceremonies; one place is the Endowment House and the other at our temples; the Logan Temple was dedicated this past summer in May; prior to that there was but one Endowment House in the Territory; it was in this city; there was a temple at St. George; there were no others; prior to May last there were no other places set apart for the performance of marriage ceremonies than St. George and this city; St. George is in Washington County; the church recognizes other places where plural marriages may be performed outside of endowment houses and temples, under certain circumstances; can't say what those circumstances are; if a man and woman were living in this city who desired to enter plural marriage, they would not necessarily have to be married in the Endowment House; if they desired to marry outside of the city, they would have to have a dispensation for the performance of the act, but not for a specific place; I give the authority to marry in all cases; persons that I might appoint might also confer that authority; I have conferred that authority in the past three years on Joseph F. Smith. George Q. Cannon, and others; I don't remember what ethers at present; this authority would be a general one till rescinded; I cannot give the names of the priests authorized to perform these plural marriages within the past three years; can't give any of them; I could give you hundreds of names of parties in this Territory who have the authority; there are no records kept of these appointments; I don't know who all these parties are; there are parties whom I do not know whether they are authorized or not; I cannot give you the names of parties who were authorized to perform the marriage ceremonies in the Endowment House in 1883; I might ascertain the names, if there is a record of marriages kept; if I wanted to find out where the records were I might be able to find them; I don't think I will be good enough to look for the records for you; I don't know anything about the record; I can't tell you who the custodian of the records is; I don't think I ever saw the marriage record; I have never given any direction as to the custody of the record; can't say that I ever made inquiry as to the whereabouts of the record; have never been told who the custodian of the record was; don't know whether in 1883 Angus Cannon or Elias Smith were custodians of the record; I do not know whether there is any regulation
of the church in regard to the records; no one who has not had the authority conferred on him can celebrate marriage; a number of others besides myself can confer this authority; I am the only one having the authority; I can't give you the names of parties in this city authorized to perform plural marriage; the ceremony of marriage is secret as to some; with the exception of those present taking part in the ceremony and the contracting parties, it is not necessarily a secret ceremony; there might be a great many others in whom the church had confidence, who would have a right to attend; the parties present at such a marriage are not sworn to secrecy, not that I know of."
" What is the ceremony of plural marriage ?' ' " I decline to answer the question."
Mr. Varian, in his speech in behalf of the prosecution, made a number of telling points relating to the Mormon hierarchy. In substance he said:
" That the Government had again been brought face to face with the Mormon Church. There had been many violations of the law of 1862, but there had been few prosecutions. The reasons for this were apparent to men who resided in the community. For years the dominant church had arrayed itself in one particular against the law of the land, holding that the Constitution of this country guaranteed religious liberty to every man. This church has not only set itself against the laws, but against the decisions of the Federal courts. claiming to be governed by a higher law than human law; forgetting that it had its very existence from the Government; that the very land upon which were built its temples and its tabernacles; that the very fields from which it drew its tithing fund; that the very expenses which enables it to carry on its local government, in great part, at least, had fallen from the munificent hand of the Government.
"It was at first claimed that polygamy was a tenet of the faith, and upon that ground claimed protection for their religious belief under the Constitution. On that issue it went to the country, and the courts and the United States Supreme Court in the Miles case said unmistakably that no such article of faith could claim protection under the Constitution of the country.
"Recollecting that the practice of polygamy was said to be enjoined by God, it would appear that if obedience was required to the law of God, that the same obedience would require a submission to the consequences. If martyrdom was to be invoked, martyrdom
ought to be endured. It was not the history of martyrs, when called upon to suffer for their faith or belief, to seek to defeat the Administration of law by acts of concealment, by denial and evasion, and by equivocation and fraud. The spectacle presented here was that of an organized community, an organized religious society, teaching from its pulpit and press that polygamy was right and commanded of God; that the Supreme Court of the United States was not the final arbiter of the laws of the country, notwithstanding the Constitution has said that it shall be.
"In this case the prosecution had called many witnesses, it might seem to the jury unnecessarily. But there was a reason for it. The heads of the church, those prominent in authority, the bishops and elders, as well as the immediate relatives on all sides of the defendant, had been brought in for the purpose of exhibiting to the court something of the difficulty and the reason of its existence, in carrying on a prosecution in this community against a member of this church. The prosecution wanted to show to the jury directly if they could, indirectly if they could not, that although it was enjoined upon this people publicly at their meetings and in their tabernacles to live their religion, yet that command was only to be carried out in secrecy, that it was to be enshrouded in the darkness of night, that no one connected with the ceremony must know of his neighbor, that no one connected with the ceremony must allow his right hand to know what his left hand did.
"No one from President Taylor down has been able to tell anything about a record being kept of marriages performed in the church. Such an utter absence of memory, such an utter mental void, such absolute forgetfulness was perhaps never before exhibited in a court of justice. 'I do not remember,' 'I do not recollect,' 'I think there must be such a record, but I do not know where it is,' 'I do not dare to inform myself,' 'I will not be good enough to inform myself ' -- these and similar expressions fell from the mouths of the witnesses; and he submitted to the jury that, as they looked over the case and reviewed it in their minds, all this must plainly show to them that theme was an organized effort, an organized system directed in its objects to frustrate and defeat the administration of justice. There was a forgetfulness which was guilty in its origin and conception, and a man could as easily commit perjury by saying he did not remember or he did not recollect, as he could by affirming a negative to a fact, In a celebrated trial in England a witness baffled all the efforts of Lord Brougham to elicit the facts in the case by simply responding to all questions, 'I don't remember,' and for years after
"The prosecution had been charged with excessive zealousness. He failed to see it in this case, but took the opportunity of saying, in behalf of the office be represented, that they purposed manifesting in all these cases all the zeal that the cases would warrant, until they could establish the law here as it was written on the statute books.
"This case against the defendant stood before the jury on two charges -- one that of unlawful marriage and the other that of unlawful cohabitation, he directed the attention of the jury to the first of the two charges, stating that such a charge could be substantiated as well by circumstantial as by direct evidence. No witness saw the marriage performed, there was no record produced because none was kept, and nothing but circumstances and admissions could establish the guilt of the defendant. It was not to be supposed that defendant in entering into this illegal relationship would publish it to the world. The admissions of defendant make the strongest kind of evidence, and when corroborated, as they are in this case, are entitled to great weight.
"It is not disputed that defendant married Florence Dinwoodey for a first wife in August, 1882, and it is alleged that he married Lydia Spencer some time during the following year. Defendant was a member of the Mormon Church in good fellowship, his father was and is a bishop, and his family are all followers of the faith. The first that is known of defendant's connection with Lydia Spencer is her coming to Spencer Clawson's store, where defendant was employed. She moves to a house on Third South Street, and lives there in a bedroom and kitchen alone. Defendant is seen going and leaving there a great number of times. Connect the visits of defendant to Lydia Spencer in the Tenth Ward, his visits with her to the theatre and Tabernacle, his drawing water for her in midday a number of times, her moving to defendants house in the Eighteenth Ward, her dining and living there as a wife would, her joining the Eighteenth Ward Mutual Improvement Association under the name of Lillie Clawson time night defendant did, and a chain of circumstances is linked together, whose strength cannot he disputed. Then after defendant was indicted Lydia Spencer moves to Mrs. Smith's house on West Temple Street, where defendant visited her a number of times, and had access by a back door. Lydia Spencer, who above all persons on earth, ought to have an interest in the matter in protecting her fair name, has disappeared so utterly that no one appears to know where she has gone. She has gone where
the woodbine twineth, but will ' bob up serenely ' when the jury has brought in its verdict and the case is concluded. Even her own mother does not appear to know where she is or when she will return. The mother of defendant's first wife has also mysteriously disappeared. Mrs. Margaret Clawson, the mother of defendant, has also dropped out of existence in a miraculous manner, she who is interested above all others in maintaining her son's fair name. These are all small circumstances, but they are sufficient to cast upon the defendant the burden of explaining them away.
"Now, as to the admissions of defendant. You saw Mr. Caine on the stand. He could have no motive to attack the people of his faith or his ancestry. His father today represents this people in Congress. He is positive that defendant admitted to him that Lydia Spencer was his second wife. Three witnesses are brought forward to contradict Mr. Caine, and these are the only three witnesses for the defence. Instead of the defence bringing witnesses to contradict the marriage, they bring forward three men to impeach Caine's testimony. These witnesses were all witnesses for the prosecution, and were asked whether they had ever heard the matter of defendant's marriage to Lydia Spencer mentioned in defendant's presence, and they all answered no. The witness Lund remembered no conversation about defendant acknowledging Lydia Spencer as his second wife, and yet when he was put on the stand as a witness for the defence, he remembers clearly a conversation on the subject had in April, 1883.
"His memory was refreshed by reading Mr. Caine's testimony the day before he testified the first time, and yet when he testified the first time he remembered nothing about it. This witness slunk out of the court-room when he had finished testifying, as though the burden of his infamy would crush him to the ground.
"The next witness brought to impeach Mr. Caine was Orson Rodgers, and he was another of the gibbering idiots who knew nothing. H. V. Decker was the third and last witness brought to impeach Mr. Caine. I ask you whether this evidence for the defence did not strengthen Mr. Caine's testimony?
" When these circumstances are woven together they make a case concerning which there can be no reasonable doubt, It was to the speaker's mind a rather solemn occasion than otherwise, for never before had the exact condition of affairs here been brought home so forcibly to his mind. I now direct your attention to the question of jurisdiction -- that is, as to whether the second marriage was performed within the jurisdiction of this court. If the marriage had not
taken place in the counties over which this court had jurisdiction, the defendant might easily have proved this by the testimony of persons other than himself. A prima facie case having been made out by the prosecution, and there being no explanation by the defence, the jury is to presume that the marriage took place within the jurisdiction. Defendant was employed at the Z. C. M. I. prior to December, 1882, and being a private corresponding clerk, it is testified to that he was there continuously. After January, 1883 the testimony shows that the defendant was not absent from town one day up to the time of his indictment. It was about January, 1883, that Lydia Spencer's connection with defendant is first shown. As book-keeper of Spencer Clawson, the entries on the book show conclusively that he was within this jurisdiction for the past two years. The jury would be warranted in presuming from the circumstances the fact that defendant was not absent from the jurisdiction, and that the second marriage took place within it.
"The defendant is a young man, standing upon the threshold of life. If he went into the marriage relation under the laws of the church, he knew what would follow the results of his act. Had he reflected, he would have seen that civilization was coming westward and that the time was coming when the law would rise up in its majesty and be vindicated. He would have known that when the conscience of the American people was pricked, as it was when slavery was dominant, that this government would rise up in its glory and crush out all opposition to its laws. Had he reflected, he must have known that the laws of this country are supreme, and that all church laws in conflict with it must sooner or later become nugatory and of no effect. The defendant must suffer for the consequences of his own act."
VERBATIM REPORT.By the Court. Mr. Clawson, will you stand up?
The defendant rises to his feet.
By the Court. You were indicted in this court upon an indictment charging that you have been guilty of polygamy on the dates charged thereon, by marrying Lydia Spencer, while your former wife, Florence Ann Clawson, was still living. In the second count of that indictment you were charged with unlawfully cohabiting with two women, Florence Ann Clawson and Lydia Spencer. To that indictment you entered a plea of not guilty, and a jury was sworn to try the issue; and after hearing the evidence, and the arguments of counsel, you were found guilty upon both charges.
Have you any further legal cause to show why judgment should not be pronounced against you?
By the Defendant. Your honor, since the jury that recently sat on my case have seen proper to find a verdict of guilty, I have only this to say, why judgment should not be pronounced against me. I may much regret that the laws of my country should come in contact with the laws of God; but whenever they do I shall invariably choose the latter. If I did not so express myself I should feel myself unworthy of the cause that I represent.
The Constitution of the United States expressly states that Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. It cannot be denied that marriage, when attended and sanctioned by religious rites and ceremonies, is the establishment of religion.
The law of 1862 and the Edmunds Bill were expressly designed to operate against marriage, as practised and believed in by the Latter-Day Saints. They are, therefore, unconstitutional, and cannot command the same respect that a constitutional law would, That is all I desire to say, your Honor.
By the Court. The Constitution of the United States, as construed by the Supreme Court and by the authors of that instrument, does not protect any person in the practice of polygamy. While all men have a right to worship God according to the dictates of their own consciences, and to entertain any religious belief that their conscience, reason, and judgment dictate, they have not the right to engage in a practice which the American people, through the laws of their country, declare to he unlawful and injurious to society.
There have been among barbarous and superstitious people various conditions of men and women, with respect to each other; and different classes of unions have been recognized. Promiscuity, the intercourse of the sexes without any definite relations; polyandry, one wife and many husbands, or more than one husband; and polygamy, one husband and many wives, or more than one wife; and also monogamy, one wife and one husband. This last union has emerged with civilization from barbarism and superstition, and it is the institution of marriage that exists throughout the whole civilized world. It is the institution which that infinite source that manifests all things has manifested as the natural and true union to exist between men and women in civilized society. This marriage elevates women to an equality with men, so far as their different organizations will permit; it recognizes the great principle which lies at the foundation of all justice and all equity -- equality, No just government on earth
can stand which permits any violation of this great principle of equality, upon which all just laws must rest at last. This union elevates woman, places her upon the high plane beside man, and in its light I believe that man and woman will ascend to the glorious future, will climb the hills of progress, through all time, side by side.
This belief that polygamy is right the civilized world recognizes as a mere superstition; it is one of those superstitions which, honestly believed in in the past, have done infinite injury -- one of those religious superstitions whose pathway has been lit by the fagot, and red with the blood of innocent people. The American people, through their laws, have pronounced polygamy a crime, and the court must execute that law. In fixing this punishment the statute gives the court a wide discretion. It provides, among other things, that a person found guilty of polygamy shall be punished by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars and by imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; and for the crime described in the second count upon which you were found guilty, it provides that a person shall be punished by a fine of not more than three hundred dollars or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court, >From these provisions it is apparent that the great object of the law was to protect the institution of marriage as recognized by law, the marriage of one woman to one man. And the court, in fixing the punishment, must not only take into consideration the consequences of the sentence to you and to your family, but to society.
The great object of punishment applied to crimes is to deter other people from committing like offences, and protect society from the evils resulting from the crime; and with that in view the court must fix the punishment, where it has the discretion. The court, however, looks at the circumstances, and where the crime is aggravated the punishment is usually greater, and should be more severe: and where there are palliating circumstances the punishment should be less. In your ease there is one circumstance, probably, that should be taken into consideration. You have been taught, as it seems. and I presume it to be true, by your ancestors, or by those from whom you received religious instructions, that polygamy was right; and those who taught you are, probably, to some extent almost as much to blame as you, although they could not be punished, because they have committed no overt act that; could be proved; no such act as they could be punished for. That, of course, should he taken into account, But you are an intelligent; man, over thirty years of age, I believe.
Clawson. No, sir.
Court. I am mistaken, then. I understood some witness to so testify. What is your age? Clawson. Twenty-seven.
Court. I was mistaken then. I probably misunderstood the witness. You probably were between twenty-four and twenty-five when the offence was committed? Clawson. As charged.
Court. As charged in the indictment.
Clawson. Yes, sir.
Court. You unquestionably knew of the existence of this law?
Clawson. Yes, sir.
The Court Continued. And understood it, and you deliberately violated it. You violated it also with the understanding, as you say, that you had a right to do it, because there was a higher law, as you claimed, by which you govern your conduct. That being so, it makes the case aggravated.
You deliberately violated a law of your country, knowing the consequences and the effects. And there is another thing to be taken into consideration in fixing this punishment, the object being to prevent the crime. As you state, and, as I presume from the evidence in the ease it is true, there is a class -- a large class -- of persons in this district, in this Territory, and probably many in others, who claim that it is right to violate the law. The object of the law is to prevent it, and it is the duty of the court; to so fix the punishment as that it will be most likely to prevent other persons from committing like offences against society.
The institution of marriage is one of the most important to society of any that exist. When free love, polygamy, or any other system shall be substituted for the monogamic marriage, then this great social fabric, which is now protected by law, will probably be crumbling about us; and chastity, virtue, and decency will fall with it, in my judgment. And that seems to be the judgment of the American people and of the whole civilized world; because, I believe, polygamy is not lawful in any civilized government on the globe. For the purpose of protecting society, therefore, and protecting this institution, which is of such great interest and importance to society, the court; must fix the punishment so that it will he likely to prevent its recurrence.
The law provides, in the ease of polygamy, for a fine not to exceed five hundred dollars, and for imprisonment not exceeding five years. I confess that I should have been inclined to have fixed this punishment
at less than I shall, were it not for the fact that you openly declare that you believe it is right to violate this law. I shall' therefore fix your punishment in the case of polygamy on the first count at a flue of five hundred dollars, and imprisonment for the term of three years and six months, and on the last count, for unlawful co-habitation, I will fix your fine at three hundred dollars and your imprisonment at six months. Judgment will be entered by the clerk accordingly. I wish to add one more remark to the judgment, which is that the imprisonment on the last count of the indictment will begin at the termination of the imprisonment of the first.
Judge Zane read the following charge to the jury in the Rudger Clawson case:
GENTLEMEN OF THE JURY: The court charges you that the laws of the United States of America in force in this Territory, declare that every person who has a wife living and marries another is guilty of polygamy; and that the first count of the indictment upon which the defendant stands charged states that on the first day of August, 1882, he married Florence Ann Dinwoodey, with whom he is still living as his wife, and from whom he has not been divorced; and that afterward and on the 1st day of July, 1883, he married Lydia Spencer in this, the Third Judicial District of the Territory of Utah. To this count the defendant has pleaded not guilty. The court further charges you that the law presumes the defendant innocent until he is proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt, It is not necessary that the evidence should show that the marriages charged actually occurred on the days therein named There is no dispute in the evidence with respect to the marriage of the defendant to Florence Ann Dinwoodey, and the real contention is as to the charge that he married Lydia Spencer, and that such marriage was in this judicial district. To prove this marriage, admissions of the defendant and circumstances are relied upon. The court further charges you that admissions and declarations of the defendant hastily made are entitled to but little weight; but when deliberately made and precisely identified, they should receive great weight. You should not look at the circumstances in evidence separately, but should consider them with respect to the fact to be proven, and with respect to each other, and should endeavor to discern their connections, their coincidences, and their disagreements, if such they may present, and so considering them together, give them such weight as in your best judgment they may be entitled to. If you can reconcile the evidence before
you upon any reasonable hypothesis consistent with the innocence of the defendant, it is your duty to do so.
With respect to the second count of the indictment, the court instructs you to find the defendant not guilty on that count. The court further charges you that a reasonable doubt is one based upon reason, and such doubt must be reasonable in view of all the evidence. And if, after an impartial and careful consideration of all the evidence in this case, you can candidly say that you are not satisfied of the existence of any fact essential to the defendant's guilt you have a reasonable doubt, and in that case you should find the defendant not guilty upon the first count of the indictment also. But if after a candid and careful consideration of all the evidence you have such an abiding conviction of the defendant's guilt that you would be willing to act upon it in the more weighty matters relating to your own affairs, you have no reasonable doubt. And if you should be so satisfied of the defendant's guilt you should find him guilty.
Gentlemen, you are the sole judges of the credibility of the witnesses, of the weight of the evidence, and of the facts. You should diligently investigate and carefully consider all the evidence before you together, and give it such weight as you may believe it entitled to when so considered. But if you shall believe that any witness or witnesses have willfully sworn falsely to any fact material in this case, you are at liberty to wholly disregard the testimony of such witness or witnesses, except so far as they may be corroborated by other trustworthy evidence.
The court charges you with respect to the form of your verdict, that if you find the defendant guilty of polygamy, as charged in the first count of the indictment, the form of your verdict will be, "The jury find the defendant guilty on the first count of the indictment."
If you find the defendant not guilty on the first count of the indictment, the form of your verdict will be, "The jury find the defendant not guilty."
THE FORMAL SENTENCE.The following sentence was then entered of record by the clerk of the court:
United States v. Rudger Clawson. Polygamy and unlawful cohabitation. This being the time fixed by the court for passing its sentence herein, and the defendant, with his counsel, Bennett, Harkness &
Kirkpatrick, being present and having filed no motion for a new trial, and declining to move for a new trial, and the defendant being requested to state if there be any reason why the sentence of the court should not be passed upon him, and no cause being shown for stay of sentence, it is by the court ordered, adjudged, and decreed that you, Rudger Clawson, on the first count of the indictment and the conviction had for polygamy, do forfeit and pay to the United States the sum of five hundred dollars, and that you be confined and imprisoned in the Utah Penitentiary upon said first count for the term of three years and six months.
And it is further adjudged and decreed that, pursuant to the conviction had under the second count of the indictment against you, the defendant, Rudger Clawson, for the crime of unlawful cohabitation, that you do forfeit and pay to the said United States the further sum of three hundred dollars; and further, that you, the said defendant, be confined and imprisoned in the Utah Penitentiary the further time of six months.
And it is further adjudged and decreed that you, the said Rudger Clawson, be detained and confined, by the officer in charge of said penitentiary, until the above imposed fines be paid and satisfied.
With such evidence concerning the Clawson trial it would suggest that the beginning of the end of Mormon hierarchy had arrived; but as evidence to the contrary it is stated, on reliable authority, that the Mormons in Idaho at a recent election were ordered by George Q. Cannon to vote for a certain candidate for Congress. Mr. Cannon did not leave his office, but his order was faithfully carried out. The Mormons in Idaho voted as a unit for his man.
The converts to Mormonism throughout the world at the present time number about 200,000. Of the 150,000 people in Utah are 120,000 Mormons, and of these 12,000 are polygamists. A distinguished son of Mormon parentage, but who is not himself a believer, makes the statement that a Mormon's practice of polygamy depends on his ability to support plurality of wives. Long ago the hive swarmed, and today hold the balance of power
in Idaho and Arizona, and are rapidly peopling Washington, Montana, and Wyoming Territories, as well as Colorado and New Mexico. While this people profess to observe the forms of a republican government, the despotism of its leaders is as absolute in its control at the present time as it has ever been, and is greater than any other despotism on earth. That such an institution has been able to maintain itself in the very heart of a free country, and to steadily increase in power and wealth, is one of the problems of the age. Polygamy is considered by many persons to be the most objectionable feature of Mormonism, forgetting that its creed is a deadly menace to free government, and that it preaches a celestial kingdom of God, and the kingdom of God on earth, the latter meaning that the whole earth is to be subjugated to Mormon rule. The only allegiance given by the Saints is to their church and chiefs. Between their creed and the Government of the United States the latter is nothing. The Mormonism of today has been described as "a combination of a limited number of knaves pretending to have a sanction for their rule from the Most High to exercise boundless dominion over a multitude of dupes who submit to their despotism as to the commands of God. Suppose, says the same author, that a set of low, shrewd, sleek, uneducated Yankees, escaped from the jails of the region in which they were born, and dismissed with scorn by the inhabitants of the Western States to which they may have emigrated, should gratify their peculiar tastes and inclinations by instituting a new religion which should justify their crimes, and that they should entice a great number of unchristianized and uncivilized fools and fanatics to submit to their dictation; suppose all these seemingly improbable facts, and you have Mormonism in its central idea. It can have no development
which is not essentially brutish, vulgarity being at the very heart of its animal creed and constitution, however much these may have been varnished over by superficial tourists, who merely observe them from the outside." There are more polygamists now than ever, and the obnoxious doctrines are more openly and defiantly preached. But one conviction has been had for polygamy under the statutes in twenty years. In a word, the Mormons of today are cursing the Stars and Stripes. They are obedient to John Taylor, as they were to Joseph Smith; they break the laws and defy the government, accepting polygamy as a revelation from a just God. It is known that the people of this faith are ready for any anticipated emergency. Most of them, if not all, keep fire-arms in their dwellings, in the use of which they are trained experts. Some of the observers of the situation in Utah predict a civil war without our government defends its authority and punishes treason as it deserves, while others affirm that the Mormon leaders are too sagacious to allow their affairs to lead to such an issue.
The converts to Mormonism are either cranks or persons of slight education, who listen to the stories of "a laud flowing with milk and honey, "to which they must flee for salvation, with delight. The missionaries are not, many of them, educated men, but are familiar with the Bible from end to end. Brigham Young said that he did not require college graduates, but could take a youth who had cut wood and killed bears among the hills and send him on a mission, and he would come back a man. No one can refuse a mission, although it has frequently been a place of exile for the too inquiring, too ambitions, and too knowing. Dissipated young men have been sent off, and returned quite reformed. The
indifferent and doubting have also been sent, and came home extreme fanatics in their belief. The Mormon missionary starts out without purse or scrip. He is forced to be on his good behavior, as he is a professional beggar, and breaks bread with the stranger. He thus gains an admittance into households, and works upon the susceptibilities of women, wherein lies a more assured success than if he lodged in hotels. But without visible means they live well, and dress well, and travel luxuriously. They have never been known to starve. Of the three hundred of them now out, one hundred are preaching in the Southern States, where in recent years they have made many converts. The other two hundred Mormon missionaries are scattering the seeds of their horrible doctrines over the broad world. A convert in his first year's residence must give one tenth of his time, one tenth of what he raises, and one tenth of his possessions on his arrival, even if he have no money. This payment of tithes is an onerous burden to the Mormons, who, in spite of all reports, are taxed to an exasperating degree. They cannot evade this tithing yet the roads and bridges are not in good order, and there is not a hospital in Utah. The only decent school building in the territory is the University of Deseret. The Gentiles are taxed to support Mormon schools, which their children do not attend, where the hymns and prayers are Mormon, as well as the teachers. Brigham Young denounced colleges, yet sent one of his sons to Cornell University, one to the University of Michigan, and another to West Point. The latter, when asked if his oath of allegiance to the government brought him in conflict with the commands of John Taylor, which he would obey, without hesitation answered he would obey John Taylor.
Salt Lake City has a population of from twenty to
twenty-five thousand. It is situated on the east bank of the Jordan, a short river which connects Lake Utah with the great Salt Lake, eleven miles distant. The location is at once beautiful and picturesque with the grand snow-capped Wahsatch Mountains on the east the valley of the Jordan on the south and west, while in the distance are other ranges of mountains. it is the metropolis of Utah, "the chief city of Zion," "the habitation of the Saints," "the grand centre of the kingdom of God," "the city of prediction, beautiful for situation, and the joy of the whole earth." ' The streets are one hundred and thirty-seven feet wide, and the blocks forty rods square. Water is conveyed along the streets for irrigation and other purposes, and the shade and fruit trees render it conspicuous from the country at large. The site covers nine thousand acres, not more than one fourth of which is occupied. Fort Douglas is situated on one of the heights overlooking the city, where several regiments of United States troops are stationed, under command of Federal officers. The climate is clear and dry, rain seldom fails, and the air is delightfully cool and invigorating. Its railway facilities with the East give the residents the comforts and luxuries of modern civilization, and yet it is unlike all other cities, with its half-finished temple, which has already cost two millions of dollars, its Tabernacle for summer worship -- there is no method of heating it -- its Endowment House, Tithing Office, and its other places for Mormon services and residence. One hundred thousand dollars is annually collected from tithes. The city is lighted by gas, and has six miles of street railway. It is a very gay city, as the Mormons are not only fond of public amusements, but of all manner of social festivities and dancing. Their public balls sometimes last from twelve to fourteen hours. The
women are given to fine dress and the fripperies of fashion, and are as fond of the elegant accessories which make life pleasant as their Gentile sisters. Their advance in such indulgences has been remarkable since Brigham harangued against the follies of women.
There is a Territorial Library, a City and a Masonic Library; a museum of the productions and curiosities of the region; three daily and weekly newspapers, a weekly in the Scandinavian tongue, and some minor periodicals. The City Hall cost $70,000. The Tabernacle has a costly organ, which is the second largest in the United States, and it will seat eight thousand persons. * There are Mason and Odd Fellows' halls, theatres, several hotels, Episcopalian, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Catholic churches, and a Jewish synagogue. The immense co-operative store is a Mormon institution.
The Endowment House has its peculiar rites. Here the Mormons are "sealed for time and eternity" in "celestial marriage," and here one day in the week there is an all-day performance, when "each Mormon is invested with the Adamic costume (a garment made all in one piece, high-necked and with long sleeves), and receives grips, tokens, and new names. If living and dying he wears this garment, and does not forget the grips and the name, he is sure of heaven whatever may befall him. A sacred drama forms a part of the ceremonies. The man who plays the part of the devil therein is also janitor of the Tabernacle, passes the bread and
* Oscar Wilde, in describing the Tabernacle, remarked that at a distance it resembles a copper kettle turned upside down. The huge domes rest on columns between which are doors, in its whole circumference, that in warm weather can all be opened. The building is only used in summer, and is sometimes called "The Bowerie" for that reason.
wine at the celebration of the Lord's Supper, and leads an orchestra in the church theatre." The Endowment House rites are a kind of bastard Masonry instituted by Joseph Smith at Nauvoo. There is the Aaronic grip, and the grip of Melchisedec. There is the oath of vengeance against the United States Government for the death of Joseph Smith and his brother Hiram (or Hyrum, as it is usually spelled), and the oath of emplicit obedience to the priesthood, It is impossible with these oaths that loyalty to the government should exist. A remarkable resemblance has been pointed out between the ceremonies in the Eleusinia, a festival among the Cretans, and the mysteries of the Endowment house, as they are represented by some of the historians of Mormonism.
Ecclesiastically the city is divided into twenty wards, over which is a bishop and two councillors. These are men who" do as they are told, and see that the Saints pay their tithing regularly." In each ward the bishop holds a meeting every Sunday night. Under this divisional supervision the city, if twenty times larger, would be under the same complete control. At home and abroad a Mormon is never free from the vigilant watch of church officers. A Presbyterian clergyman of Salt Lake City has recently asserted before an Eastern audience that it is this priestly despotism which is the central and great evil of the Mormon system. Polygamy -- bad as it is in his estimation -- is sweet in comparison with this constant and deadly tyranny. All understand it. None can escape from it save through apostasy or death. The Tabernacle, according to Stenhouse, should be visited on a Sunday afternoon. The "spirit" is hardly warmed up in the morning services. The organ is better played,
the choir sing better. The choir occupy seats around the great organ, directly in front of which sits the president and his two councillors. in front of them is a long bench for the twelve apostles, and before these are the bishops and other officers. Several barrels of water are placed in front of the assembled church dignitaries, and after it has been blessed is handed about in tin cans to every person in the congregation. A sip of the water and a morsel of bread constitutes the ceremony of partaking the sacrament, according to Mormon rites. Hymns are sung, a prayer is made by some bishop, apostle, or elder, which is followed by a sermon either by the president or an apostle, after which the congregation sings a doxology and is dismissed with a brief blessing. The sermons are talks on practical matters, and the Saints are expected to attend to these "droppings of the sanctuary." The architectural design of the Tabernacle is hideous. From east to west it is one hundred and fifty feet, and from north to south one hundred and twenty. There is not a column to obstruct the vision. Its acoustic properties are remarkably good. Christian churches, schools, and associations have been firmly founded in Zion. For many years there was no place where anything but Mormonism could be heard, and the stranger was entirely cut off from all religious communion. But all this is past; and while "the Gentile and Mormon elements of the community unity can no more mix than oil and water," each have their places of worship. From the beginning of Mormonism the Saints have held conferences, great yearly or half-yearly meetings, lasting several days. They are usually held in Salt Lake City, and are seasons of especial enjoyment to the pilgrims who journey from afar and near to these festivals of the elect. They have
a certain resemblance to the camp-meetings of the Methodists, but were probably instituted in imitation of the old Jewish custom of assembling the Israelites in the chief city from the remotest parts of Palestine, at stated intervals, for worship. Mr. P. W. Penrose, a well-known Mormon leader, has recently denied that "blood atonement" * has ever been practised among the Saints, but adds, "in the good time coming it more will be." A disinterested observer, after a residence of several months in Salt Lake City last year, writes: "As to the ' blood atonement 'which Mormons generally deny, you may be sure it is still practised." The shedding of innocent blood has been one of the mysterious horrors of Mormonism from its inauguration, and there is no more reason to suppose it has been suppressed than its other abominable practices, which are falsely denied. It is only more adroitly managed under Taylor's rule than it was under the dominion of Brigham Young.
The boasted freedom of the ballot in Utah is a farce, as every ballot is numbered, and the number is placed against the name of the voter; and in this way those who vote contrary to the published ticket are known to the priesthood. In other parts of the Union the numbering of the tickets might be of no moment; but in Utah, where the slightest opposition is branded as rebellion, and is treated accordingly, it is of the last importance, as it practically precludes all free voting. The present generation of Mormons is in many respects in violent contrast to "the very prophets of industry"
* The Blood Atonement of the Mormons is the severing of the wind-pipe -- a gash across the throat -- to let the soul out of the body, and thus save it from destruction.
who preceded it. By all accounts the young men are idle and immoral. The relaxing climate and the influence of their surroundings has something to do with their condition. They are advised to stay at home. An elder said in the Tabernacle last summer: "We do not want our young men to leave Utah; if they have talent of any kind, let them cultivate it here." As there are no factories in Utah and comparatively few openings for young men, many of them are obliged to work on the railways and in the mines of Utah for a livelihood. Some of the wealthier Mormons send their sons and daughters to Eastern schools for educational advantages not to be obtained in Zion, in spite of the protest against it.
One of the most influential of the youthful Mormons is John Young, one of the sons of Brigham, who is a polygamist of the worst kind, having married, it is said, and deserted several women. He is described as being handsome, rich, and well educated.
Mormon children are baptized at the age of eight years. They are then members of the church. The baptism for the dead is one of the most cherished of their ordinances, and in this way they can save their ancestors from everlasting punishment, and bring their souls within Zion. This benevolence is extended beyond the confines of relationship, and is given to the heroes and heroines of history. "In fact," says a facetious recorder of events in Salt Lake City, "no one is safe from the clutches of Mormonism after death You may be made a Mormon without desiring it for all eternity." A wealthy Mormon in the summer of 1884, during a visit in Boston, employed a young woman to look up his genealogy. In this way he learned the names of some
two hundred of his Gentile ancestors, for all of whom he had the rites of baptism performed. *
If Salt Lake Valley were to become the home of a really free people, it would become one of the glories of the American Union. It is about thirty miles long. The view of it from Salt Lake City is enchanting. It is a picture of farm, lake, and mountains clothed in prevailing tints of gray, with patches of verdure that is seldom seen in any country. The atmosphere is very clear. The Territory of Utah lies mostly in the great Wahsatch Basin, between the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. It is bounded on The north by Idaho and Wyoming territories, east by Colorado, south by Arizona, and west by Nevada, It is three hundred and fifty miles long and three hundred miles in width, and has eighty-four thousand square miles. The Wahsatch range of mountains, which forms the eastern wall of the basin, traverses the territory from north to south, and with the Unitah Mountains at the north-east, and the Iron Mountains in the south-east, the rivers have no outlet, and fall into the great Salt Lake and other lakes of the basin. All these rivers have cut their way through
* An apostate Mormon, in speaking of the Baptism for the Dead, which is a vital doctrine of the Latter-Day Saints, told the following story:
"An old man, long a convert to Mormonism, residing in the southern part of Utah, last summer made a pilgrimage to Georgetown, thirty miles distant, where the Saints were in conference, for the purpose of saving nearly one hundred of his ancestors from everlasting destruction by being baptized for them. He made the journey in an ox cart with his two sons. The baptism was by immersion in a river, and the old man was "dipped" as many times as he could stand the operation, each dip representing an entrance into the Mormon paradise for some one of the otherwise lost hundred of his forefathers. Then his sons in turn were baptized until the object of their visit was accomplished."
the easily corroded rocks, and form canyons varying in depth from two to five thousand feet; and after reaching a lower plain spread out into broad streams. The eastern section of Utah, although from six to seven thousand feet above the level of the sea, is fertile, and largely productive. Western Utah is also elevated, the summits of the Wahsatch rising from the plain from forty-two hundred to six thousand feet in height, attaining a further elevation from the valley of six thousand to seven thousand feet in height. Saline and fresh lakes are numerous. Great Salt Lake is one hundred miles in length, fifty in width, and sixty feet deep, holding in solution twenty per cent of salt. The river Jordan connects it with Lake Utah, which is twenty-four miles long by twelve in width. Much of the scenery of Utah is magnificent and of the most varied description. Echo and Weber canyons are a perpetual series of surprises, as well as Parley's Park, Ogden, and Cottonwood canyons, which are all sublimely beautiful. Landscape painters consider American Fork Canyon the finest canyon in our country. The north-western portion of the territory, the elevated plateau, is a barren alkaline desert, yielding but little beside the sage bush, but under irrigation is made to yield large crops. The Mormons are not confined to Utah alone, but possess some of the best portions of Arizona, Wyoming, New Mexico, Idaho, and Colorado, The land of these territories is worthless without irrigation, and the Mormon Church has entire control of the irrigating canals. In this way they can secure themselves from Gentile intrusion, and they can subdue rebellious spirits among themselves; for the moment a man rebels the water is shut off from his land, and he is literally starved into submission, or obliged to leave the territory.
The government surveys commenced in 1855, and a land office was opened in Salt Lake City in 1868. In the year 1873 Stenhouse made the statement that surveys had extended over 4,016,825 acres, of which 92,637 acres were embraced in vacated Indian reservations. These surveys included Colorado. From that date declaratory statements under the Pre-emption Act of September 4th, 1841, had been filed for 400,000 acres, Of that extent of land 68,315 acres had been paid for with cash, mainly at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre. In addition, 20,480 acres had been located with military bounty land warrants, and 23,200 acres with agricultural scrip. Homestead entries covering 167,250 acres have been made under the act of May 29th, 1862. Estimating that there are 2,000,000 acres, or the one twenty-seventh part of the territory susceptible of cultivation, there yet remain 1,500,000 acres unappropriated for future settlement. The emigrants to Utah and the territories contiguous to it are given small farms of 160 acres government lands, which they are entitled to after becoming citizens of the United States. The Mormon settlements extend to the full limits of the territory in every direction, following the natural sweep of the valleys at the base of the mountains, from north to south it was Brigham's policy to occupy the best lands as quickly as possible. For this and other ulterior purposes he was gracious to his dusky neighbors -- the Utes, and other tribes of Indians.
Until the completion of the Union and Pacific Railroad the vast mineral wealth of Utah was untouched, the Mormon leaders being utterly opposed to exploiting the mines, knowing well that their development would bring in a non-Mormon and anti-Polygamous population Since the building of the Union Pacific and the extension
branches, north and south, Utah has produced fifty millions of dollars in silver and lead, and its other mineral wealth, except coal and salt, is yet undeveloped.
With such natural resources, what might not Utah become if Mormonism were "stamped out of it" by our government, to which, it is plain, it has become a problem difficult to solve. "Nothing can change the old Mormons. They are a hardy race, indifferent to hardships and privation; but despite the blinding influence of this system, under which, the hearts of so many women have been broken and are breaking, there is a restlessness among the young which is growing with an increasing sense of shame and wrong. The thing to do is to strike at the animalism which underlies the whole system, while carefully guarding all personal property and rights of those who have sinned through ignorance, to make further plural marriages impossible, and never relax until polygamy and the rule of the Mormon Church in temporal affair is forever abandoned. If it is postponed fifteen years, it will take a civil war to overcome this open enemy of republican government." *
If Mormonism is allowed to go on for a few years longer, its rulers will dictate the elections in all the regions between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Ocean except California and Oregon -- a region as great as all the United States, east of the Mississippi River. The renewing influences of active emigration is still going on. Within eight months of last year three thousand Mormon proselytes arrived in New York. To these converts from the peasant classes of Great Britain, Norway, and Sweden, the most flattering promises have been made of land and wealth. The Mormon leaders want
* C. C. Godwin, North American Review, 1881.
the strong young men to cultivate the land and to work in the mines -- increase the property which will accrue to the church from the tithing system. One is struck with the dull expression on the faces of these peasants from the Old World. More women than men emigrate from foreign parts to Utah. The fate of these women who come thus to a Christian country can easily be imagined.
A special dispatch to the Boston Herald from Salt Lake City, dated January 10th, 1885, states that some "high Mormons have recently returned from Mexico. They had reached the stronghold of the untamable Yayni savages, and made a conditional treaty with them. Within a few days John Taylor, Counsellor Smith, Bishop Sharp, and others have left Zion, and are known to be en route to Mexico; and it is believed they have gone to the capital to treat with the Mexican Government for lands and a charter like the Nauvoo charter. It is thought that the plan is to make a rendezvous for Mormons liable to persecution under the Edmunds law, and also to form a nucleus for a future empire in their favor. The Yaynis are terrible Indians who have never been subdued, the people of the northern Mexican States fearing them exceedingly."
The prediction that the Saints would eventually make Mexico their final resting-place is not new. Time alone will show the destiny of these people.
In closing this brief history of Mormonism, we may state what the most recent students of its methods have learned in a few words, as follows: Mormonism was evolved from the crafty brain of Sidney Rigdon who found a fitting and willing assistant in Joseph Smith. Between them they formulated the only religion that has been originated in America, from a romance written by a clergyman born in New England.
It does not seem probable that the Spaulding manuscript is still in existence. There are old men and women living who may know its fate. They may carry the burden of their sworn secret regarding it to the grave; but whether the manuscript which was so shamefully stolen was or was not destroyed, or whether it was ever returned to its rightful owners, the great scheme of the "Latter-Day Saints," with its perfidies and crimes, cannot easily be expurgated from our national history.
It may be likened to some baleful plant that has been allowed to spring up and grow into a fruition of poisonous influences, and which cannot be exterminated save by one process -- a general and thorough uprooting. It has been the darling ambition of the Mormons since their settlement in Utah to have the Territory admitted into the Union of States; but to-day they seem as far from the realization of their anticipations in this respect as they were three decades ago, when they called their new home "Deseret."
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